Hemorrhagic Stroke Workup

Updated: Apr 22, 2019
  • Author: David S Liebeskind, MD, FAAN, FAHA, FANA; Chief Editor: Andrew K Chang, MD, MS  more...
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Workup

Laboratory Studies

Laboratory tests should include a complete blood count, a metabolic panel, and—particularly in patients taking anticoagulants—coagulation studies (ie, prothrombin time or international normalized ratio [INR] and an activated partial thromboplastin time). [1]

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Imaging Studies

Brain imaging is a crucial step in the evaluation of suspected hemorrhagic stroke and must be obtained on an emergent basis. Brain imaging aids diagnosing hemorrhage, and it may identify complications such as intraventricular hemorrhage, brain edema, or hydrocephalus. Either noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) scanning or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice.

Computed tomography (CT)-scan studies can also be performed in patients who are unable to tolerate a magnetic resonance examination or who have contraindications to MRI, including pacemakers, aneurysm clips, or other ferromagnetic materials in their bodies. Additionally, CT-scan examination is more easily accessible for patients who require special equipment for life support. See the image below.

Noncontrast computed tomography scan of the brain Noncontrast computed tomography scan of the brain (left) demonstrates an acute hemorrhage in the left gangliocapsular region, with surrounding white matter hypodensity consistent with vasogenic edema. T2-weighted axial magnetic resonance imaging scan (middle image) again demonstrates the hemorrhage, with surrounding high-signal edema. The coronal gradient-echo image (right) demonstrates susceptibility related to the hematoma, with markedly low signal adjacent the left caudate head. Gradient-echo images are highly sensitive for blood products.

CT angiography and contrast-enhanced CT scanning may be considered for helping identify patients at risk for hematoma expansion. Extravasation of contrast within the hematoma indicates high risk.

When clinical or radiologic findings suggest an underlying structural lesion, useful techniques include CT angiography, CT venography, contrast-enhanced CT scanning, contrast-enhanced MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or magnetic resonance venography. [1]

Conventional angiography is the gold standard in evaluating for cerebrovascular disease and for providing less-invasive endovascular interventions. This modality can be performed to clarify equivocal findings or to confirm and treat disease seen on MRA, CTA, transcranial Doppler, or neck ultrasonograms. However, Zhu et al found that in patients with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, angiographic yield was significantly lower in patients older than 45 years and those who had preexisting hypertension. [29]

Although the traditional approach to excluding underlying vascular abnormalities in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is to use digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the acute and subacute phases, Wong et al found that MRA was able to detect most structural vascular abnormalities in the subacute phase in most patients. Consequently, they recommend MRA as the screening test.

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