Pediatric Gastrointestinal Bleeding Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 19, 2018
  • Author: Wayne Wolfram, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Robert K Minkes, MD, PhD  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

How common is pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and how is it treated?

What causes gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in neonates?

What causes upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in infants?

What causes lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in infants?

What causes upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in children younger than 2 years?

What causes lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in children younger than 2 years?

What causes upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in children older than 2 years?

What causes lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in children older than 2 years?

What causes pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

What is the prevalence of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in neonates?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in infants?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in children younger than 2 years?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in children younger than 2 years?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in children older than 2 years?

Which physical findings are characteristic of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

Which physical findings are characteristic of lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in infants?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of pediatric gastrointestinal bleeding?

How is maternal blood differentiated from fetal blood in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal bleeding?

What are the differential diagnoses for Pediatric Gastrointestinal Bleeding?

Workup

How is the cause of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding diagnosed?

How is the cause of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding diagnosed in neonates?

How is the cause of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding diagnosed in infants?

How is the cause of lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding diagnosed in infants?

How is the cause of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding diagnosed in children younger than 2 years?

How is the cause of lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding diagnosed in children younger than 2 years?

How is the cause of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding diagnosed in children older than 2 years?

How is the cause of lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding diagnosed in children older than 2 years?

What is the role of peroxide-based tests in the workup of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

What is the role of abdominal radiography in the workup of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

What is the role of barium contrast studies in the workup of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

What is the role of enema studies in the workup of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

What is the role of Meckel scans in the workup of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

What is the role of arteriography in the workup of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

What is the role of nasogastric tube in the workup of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

What is the role of endoscopy in the workup of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

What is the role of enteroscopy in the workup of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

What is the role of colonoscopy in the workup of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

Treatment

How is pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding treated?

How is upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in neonates treated?

How is lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in neonates treated?

How is upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in infants treated?

How is lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in infants treated?

How is upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in children younger than 2 years treated?

How is lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in children younger than 2 years treated?

How is upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in children older than 2 years treated?

How is lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in children older than 2 years treated?

What is the role of prophylaxis in the treatment of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to pediatric patients with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

Guidelines

What are the ESGE and ESPGHAN joint guidelines on endoscopy for upper and lower pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

Which medications in the drug class Hormones/Hormone Analogs are used in the treatment of Pediatric Gastrointestinal Bleeding?

Which medications in the drug class Antacids-Alkaline Suspensions are used in the treatment of Pediatric Gastrointestinal Bleeding?

Which medications in the drug class Histamine H2 Antagonists are used in the treatment of Pediatric Gastrointestinal Bleeding?