Bariatric Surgery Clinical Presentation

Updated: Mar 16, 2023
  • Author: Alan A Saber, MD, MS, FACS, FASMBS; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, MSc, DSc, AGAF  more...
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History and Physical Examination

Morbid obesity is the harbinger of many other diseases that affect essentially every organ system, including the following:

  • Cardiovascular (eg, hypertension, atherosclerotic heart and peripheral vascular disease with myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accidents, peripheral venous insufficiency, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary embolism)
  • Respiratory (eg, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity-hypoventilation syndrome)
  • Metabolic (eg, type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia)
  • Musculoskeletal (eg, back strain; disc disease; weightbearing osteoarthritis of the hips, knees, ankles, and feet)
  • Gastrointestinal (eg,  cholelithiasisgastroesophageal reflux disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [steatosis steatohepatitis], hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma)
  • Urologic (eg, stress incontinence)
  • Endocrine and reproductive (eg, polycystic ovary syndrome, increased risk of pregnancy and fetal abnormalities, male hypogonadism)
  • Cancer of the endometrium, breast, ovary, prostate, and pancreas
  • Dermatologic (eg, intertriginous dermatitis)
  • Neurologic (eg,  pseudotumor cerebri, carpal tunnel syndrome)
  • Psychologic (eg, depression, eating disorders, body image disturbance)