Hepatocellular Carcinoma Questions & Answers

Updated: May 13, 2019
  • Author: Luca Cicalese, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, DSc, MSc, AGAF  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the global prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

At what stage is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) typically recognized?

Which factors will increase the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the future?

What are the limits of liver transplantation as a treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What anatomy of the liver must be understood for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the sources of vascular supply to the liver?

What is the role of the hepatic artery in the anatomy of the liver?

What is the role of the portal vein in the anatomy of the liver?

What is the role of the hepatic vein in the anatomy of the liver?

What is the biliary anatomy of the liver?

What is the vascular anatomy of the liver?

What is the anatomy of the right and left hemilivers (lobes) of the liver?

What are the categories of liver resection?

How are the different forms of hepatectomies characterized?

What is the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which characteristics of a cirrhotic liver affect the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of genetics in the pathobiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of the ARID2 gene in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of nodules in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the US?

What is the global incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide?

What is the mortality rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How does the prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vary by sex and age?

What are the major risk factors for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the US?

What is the major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in developing countries?

Which health trends suggest hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global epidemic?

Presentation

How do tumors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually present?

Workup

What is the role of lab evaluation in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of ultrasonography in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening?

Which CT scan results are characteristic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which patient groups should receive routine screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the recommendations for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening in patients with cirrhosis?

What is the role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the screening and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which lab test results are useful in determining severity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which lab test findings are associated with specific etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which ultrasonography findings are characteristic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of triple-phase CT in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which CT findings are characteristic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of contrast-enhanced imaging studies in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of liver biopsy in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of liver resection in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the limitations of the TNM staging system for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the Child-Pugh-Turcotte score for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) staging?

What is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) system for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) staging?

What are the treatment options for larger hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors?

Treatment

How is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) managed?

What is the best treatment option for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the curative treatment options in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of surgical resection in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of surgical resection in patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which pathological factors increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence following surgical resection?

Which clinical factors are associated with a higher rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence?

When is repeat liver resection indicated in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the advantages to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Why were survival rates low for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following liver transplantation in the 1990s?

What are the survival rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following liver transplantation?

Which factors are associated with poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How are livers allocated for transplantation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of living donor and split-liver transplantations in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of ablative therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What new technologies are being investigated for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prevented?

Why are follow-ups essential after treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the recurrence rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the efficacy of posttransplant resection to treat recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the guidelines for frequency of postoperative imaging procedures for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the roles of regorafenib, nivolumab, lenvatinib, pembrolizumab, cabozantinib, and ramucirumab in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the nonsurgical options for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are complications of treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE)?

What is the role of brachytherapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which chemotherapeutic agents have the greatest efficacy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the efficacy of combination of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of sorafenib in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the treatment options when transplantation is contraindicated in patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are possible complications of pain medications in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of aspirin in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How is fluid overload managed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How is glucose managed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, VEGF Inhibitor are used in the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor are used in the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma?

Which medications in the drug class PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma?