Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 25, 2019
  • Author: Luca Cicalese, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, MSc, DSc, AGAF  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How common is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

At what stage is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) typically recognized?

What is included in the diagnostic workup for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the limits of liver transplantation as a treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What anatomy of the liver must be understood for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How are the different forms of hepatectomies characterized?

What is the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which characteristics of a cirrhotic liver affect the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of genetics in the pathobiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of the ARID2 gene in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of nodules in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of cirrhosis in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the metabolic risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of alcohol abuse in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) staging?

What is the role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors?

What is the role of hemochromatosis in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of aflatoxin in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are less common causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the US?

What is the global incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which physical exam findings are characteristic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the possible complications of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)?

Workup

How is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed?

How is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening performed?

Which CT scan results are characteristic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of lab evaluation in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which lab test results are useful in determining severity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which lab test findings are associated with specific etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the screening and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of ultrasonographty in the workup of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of triple-phase CT in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which CT findings are characteristic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of liver biopsy in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) staged?

Treatment

How is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated?

What are the nonsurgical options for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are complications of treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE)?

What is the role of brachytherapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which chemotherapeutic agents have the greatest efficacy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the efficacy of combination of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of sorafenib in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the roles of regorafenib, nivolumab, lenvatinib, pembrolizumab, cabozantinib, and ramucirumab in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the treatment options when transplantation is contraindicated in patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are possible complications of pain medications in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of aspirin in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How is fluid overload managed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How is glucose managed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of avatrombopag in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the curative treatment options in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of surgical resection in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of surgical resection in patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which pathological factors increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence following surgical resection?

Which clinical factors are associated with a higher rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence?

When is repeat liver resection indicated in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the advantages to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Why were survival rates low for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following liver transplantation in the 1990s?

What are the survival rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following liver transplantation?

Which factors are associated with poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How are livers allocated for transplantation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of living donor and split-liver transplantations in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of ablative therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What new technologies are being investigated for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prevented?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How common is recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What is the efficacy of posttransplant resection to treat recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

What are the guidelines for frequency of postoperative imaging procedures for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Guidelines

Which organizations have released guidelines on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How do the guidelines on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening vary?

What are the ACR guidelines on diagnostic imaging for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

How do the guidelines on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis vary?

What are the guidelines on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) staging?

What are the AASLD treatment guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, VEGF Inhibitor are used in the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor are used in the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)?

Which medications in the drug class PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)?