Abdominal Abscess Medication

Updated: Jun 08, 2017
  • Author: Alan A Saber, MD, MS, FACS, FASMBS; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, DSc, MSc, AGAF  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy in patients with abdominal abscess are to reduce morbidity and prevent complications. Empiric antimicrobial therapy must be comprehensive and should cover all likely pathogens in the context of the clinical setting.

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Antifungal Agents

Class Summary

Antifungal agents may alter cell membrane permeability in susceptible fungi, causing subsequent death.

Amphotericin B

Amphotericin B is produced from a strain of Streptomyces nodosus. The antifungal activity of amphotericin B results from its ability to insert itself into fungal cytoplasmic membrane at sites containing ergosterol or other sterols. Aggregates of amphotericin B accumulate at sterol sites, resulting in an increase in cytoplasmic membrane permeability to monovalent ions (eg, potassium, sodium). At low concentrations, the main effect is increased intracellular loss of potassium, resulting in reversible fungistatic activity; however, at higher concentrations, pores of 40-105 nm are produced in the cytoplasmic membrane, leading to large losses of ions and other molecules. A second effect of amphotericin B is its ability to cause auto-oxidation of the cytoplasmic membrane and release of lethal free radicals. The main fungicidal activity of amphotericin B may reside in its ability to cause auto-oxidation of cell membranes.

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