Intravenous Cannulation Periprocedural Care

Updated: Apr 10, 2017
  • Author: Gil Z Shlamovitz, MD, FACEP; Chief Editor: Vincent Lopez Rowe, MD  more...
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Periprocedural Care

Equipment

Equipment used for intravenous (IV) cannulation includes the following (see the images below):

  • Nonsterile gloves
  • Tourniquet
  • Antiseptic solution (2% chlorhexidine in 70% isopropyl alcohol)
  • Local anesthetic solution
  • 1-mL syringe with a 30-gauge needle
  • 2 × 2 in. gauze
  • Venous access device
  • Vacuum collection tubes and adaptor
  • Saline or heparin lock
  • Saline or heparin solution
  • Transparent dressing
  • Paper tape
Partial selection of equipment required for IV can Partial selection of equipment required for IV cannulation.
Partial selection of equipment required for IV can Partial selection of equipment required for IV cannulation.
Vacuum collection tubes and adaptor for IV cannula Vacuum collection tubes and adaptor for IV cannulation.
Over-the-needle IV catheter. Over-the-needle IV catheter.
Various sizes of over-the-needle IV catheters. Various sizes of over-the-needle IV catheters.
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Patient Preparation

Anesthesia

Both intradermal injection of a topical anesthetic agent just prior to IV insertion [5]  and topical application of a local anesthetic cream [6]  about 30 minutes prior to IV insertion have been shown to achieve significant reduction of the pain associated with the procedure. Both should be used unless the situation is an emergency. [7]

Positioning

Make sure that there is adequate light and that the room is warm enough to encourage vasodilation. Adjust the height or position of the bed or chair to make sure you are comfortable and to prevent unnecessary bending. Make sure the patient is in a comfortable position, and place a pillow or a rolled towel under the patient’s extended arm.

The patient’s skin should be washed with soap and water if it is visibly dirty.

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