Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Staging 

Updated: Jan 28, 2018
  • Author: Marvaretta M Stevenson, MD; Chief Editor: Nagla Abdel Karim, MD, PhD  more...
  • Print

TNM Classification for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor/node/metastasis (TNM) classification and anatomic stage/prognostic grouping for non–small cell lung cancer are presented below. [1]

See Clinical Presentations of Lung Cancer: Slideshow, a Critical Images slideshow, to help efficiently distinguish lung carcinomas from other lung lesions, as well as how to stage and treat them.

Table 1. TNM Classification for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Open Table in a new window)

Primary tumor (T)

TX Primary tumor cannot be assessed, or tumor is proven by the presence of malignant cells in sputum or bronchial washings but not visualized by imaging or bronchoscopy

T0

No evidence of primary tumor

Tis

Carcinoma in situ

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCIS)

Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS):  adenocarcinoma with pure lepidic pattern, ≤ 3 cm in greatest dimension

T1

Tumor ≤ 3 cm in greatest dimension, surrounded by lung or visceral pleura, without bronchoscopic evidence of invasion more proximal than the lobar bronchus (ie, not in the main bronchus)

T1mi Minimally invasive adenocarcinoma: adenocarcinoma (≤ 3 cm in greatest dimension) with a predominantly lepidic pattern and ≤ 5 mm invasion in greatest dimension

T1a

Tumor ≤ 1 cm in greatest dimension.  A superficial, spreading tumor of any size whose invasive component is limited to the bronchial wall and may extend proximal to the main bronchus also is classified as T1a, but those tumors are uncommon. 

T1b

Tumor > 1 cm but ≤ 2 cm in greatest dimension

T1c Tumor > 2 cm but ≤ 3 cm in greatest dimension

T2

Tumor > 3 cm but ≤ 5 cm or having any of the following features:

  • Involves the main bronchus regardless of distance to the carina, but without involvement of the carina
  • Invades visceral pleura (PL1 or PL2)
  • Associated with atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis extending to the hilar region, involving part or all of the lung

T2 tumors with these features are classified as T2a if ≤ 4 cm or if the size cannot be determined and T2b if > 4 cm but ≤ 5 cm

T2a

Tumor > 3 cm but ≤ 4 cm in greatest dimension

T2b

Tumor > 4 cm but ≤ 5 cm in greatest dimension

T3

Tumor > 5 cm but ≤ 7 cm in greatest dimension or directly invading any of the following:  parietal pleural (PL3), chest wall (including superior sulcus tumors), phrenic nerve, parietal pericardium; or separate tumor nodule(s) in the same lobe as the primary

T4

Tumor > 7 cm or tumor of any size that invades one or more of the following:  diaphragm, mediastinum, heart, reat vessels, trachea, recurrent laryngeal nerve, esophagus, vertebral body, or carina; or separate tumor nodule(s) in an ipsilateral lobe different from that of the primary

Regional lymph nodes (N)

NX

Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed

N0

No regional node metastasis

N1

Metastasis in ipsilateral peribronchial and/or ipsilateral hilar lymph nodes and intrapulmonary nodes, including involvement by direct extension

N2

Metastasis in ipsilateral mediastinal and/or subcarinal lymph node(s)

N3

Metastasis in the contralateral mediastinal, contralateral hilar, ipsilateral or contralateral scalene, or supraclavicular lymph node(s)

Distant metastasis (M)

M0

No distant metastasis

M1

Distant metastasis

M1a

Separate tumor nodule(s) in a contralateral lobe tumor; tumor with pleural or pericardial nodules or malignant pleural or pericardial effusion.  Most pleural (pericardial) effusion with lung cancer are a result of the tumor.  In a few patients, however, multiple miscroscopic examinations of pleural (pericardial) fluid are negative for tumor, and the fluid is nonbloody and not an exudate.  If these elements and clinical judgment dictate that the effusion is not related to the tumor, the effusion should be excluded as a staging descriptor.

M1b

Single extrathoracic metastasis in a single organ and involvement of a single nonregional node
M1c Multiple extrathoracic metastases in a single organ or in multiple organs

 

Table 2. Anatomic stage/prognostic groups. (Open Table in a new window)

Stage

T

N

M

0

Tis

N0

M0

IA1

T1mi

N0

M0

T1a

N0

M0

IA2

T1b

N0

M0

IA3

T1c

N0

M0

IB

T2a

N0

M0

IIA

T2b

N0

M0

IIB

T1a

N1

M0

T1b

N1

M0

T1c

N1

M0

T2a

N1

M0

T2b

N1

M0

T3

N0

M0

IIIA

T1a

N2

M0

T1b

N2

M0

T1c

N2

M0

T2a

N2

M0

T2b

N2

M0

T3

N1

M0

T4

N0

M0

T4

N1

M0

IIIB

T1a

N3

M0

T1b

N3

M0

T1c

N3

M0

T2a

N3

M0

T2b

N3

M0

T3

N2

M0

T4

N2

M0

IIIC

T3

N3

M0

T4

N3

M0

IVA

T Any

N Any

M1a

 

T Any

N Any

M1b

IVB

T Any

N Any

M1c