Hemolytic Anemia Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 06, 2019
  • Author: Paul Schick, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is hemolytic anemia?

What determines the clinical presentation of hemolytic anemia?

How is hemolytic anemia diagnosed?

What is the role of hemolysis in the pathogenesis of hemolytic anemia?

What is the result of damaged RBCs in the pathogenesis of hemolytic anemia?

What is the presentation of mild hemolysis in hemolytic anemia?

How does hemolytic anemia affect children?

What causes hemolytic anemia?

Which genetic disorders cause hemolytic anemia?

What are acquired causes of hemolytic anemia?

What is the etiology of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)?

What is the etiology of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia?

What causes hemolytic anemia in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria?

How common is hemolytic anemia?

How does the incidence of hemolytic anemia vary among races?

What is the prevalence of genetic mutations that cause hemolytic anemia among different races and ethnicities?

Is hemolytic anemia more common in males or females?

How does the incidence of hemolytic anemia vary among age groups?

What is the prognosis of hemolytic anemia?

What information about hemolytic anemia should patients receive?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of hemolytic anemia?

Which medications cause hemolytic anemia?

What triggers hemolytic anemia in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency?

What nonspecific physical findings suggest hemolytic anemia?

What causes jaundice in hemolytic anemia?

What does a physical finding of splenomegaly suggest in suspected hemolytic anemia?

How is spleen size defined in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

Which physical findings suggest hemolytic anemia?

What are the signs and symptoms of folate deficiency in chronic hemolytic anemia?

DDX

What should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hemolytic anemia?

What are the differential diagnoses for Hemolytic Anemia?

Workup

Which blood studies are performed in the evaluation for hemolytic anemia?

What are the most sensitive tests for diagnosis of hemolytic anemia?

What is the basis for selection of lab and imaging studies in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

What is the role of a CBC in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

What does a finding of thrombocytopenia suggest in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

What is the role of the RBC index in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

When is the red blood cell distribution width (RDW) study performed in the workup of hemolytic anemia?

What is the role of a reticulocyte count in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

What is the role of peripheral smear findings in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

What is the role of an LDH study in the diagnosis of hemolytic anemia?

What does a finding of LDH elevation indicate in the workup of hemolytic anemia?

What is the role of serum haptoglobin measurement in the workup of hemolytic anemia?

What is the role of indirect bilirubin measurement in the workup of hemolytic anemia?

When is red blood cell survival (chromium-51 [51 Cr] survival) performed in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

Which specific lab tests may be indicated in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

What is the role of direct antiglobulin testing in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

Which test may be helpful in the diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)?

How is the cause of dark urine determined in the workup of hemolytic anemia?

What does a finding of urine hemosiderin suggest in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

What is the role of cold agglutinin titer measurement in the workup of hemolytic anemia?

What is the role of G6PD screening in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

How is screening for sickle cell syndrome performed in the workup of hemolytic anemia?

When may other tests be indicated in the evaluation of hemolytic anemia?

Treatment

Why is prophylactic folic acid indicated in the treatment of hemolytic anemia?

When are corticosteroids indicated in the treatment of hemolytic anemia?

What is the efficacy of rituximab for the treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)?

How effective is IVIG in the treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)?

When is transfusion indicated for treatment of hemolytic anemia?

How should transfusions be performed for autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)?

How is transfusion-related iron overload treated in chronic hemolytic anemia?

What is the role of erythropoietin (EPO) in the treatment of hemolytic anemia?

Which medications should be avoided in patients with hemolytic anemia?

Which medications should be avoided in patients with G6PD deficiency-related hemolytic anemia?

When is iron therapy indicated in the treatment of hemolytic anemia?

When is splenectomy indicated in the treatment of hemolytic anemia?

What are possible complications of splenectomy in hemolytic anemia?

Which medications should be avoided in patients with G6PD deficiency-related hemolytic anemia?

In which populations are fava beans a risk factor for hemolytic anemia?

Which medications can cause immune hemolytic anemia?

Which specialist consultation is helpful in the diagnosis of hemolytic anemia?

What lab levels should be monitored in patients with hemolytic anemia?

What are treatment options for hemolytic anemia?

Medications

What are the goals of pharmacotherapy for hemolytic anemia?

Which medications in the drug class Iron Salts are used in the treatment of Hemolytic Anemia?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Hemolytic Anemia?

Which medications in the drug class Vitamins are used in the treatment of Hemolytic Anemia?