Pediatric Pancreatitis Medication

Updated: Aug 15, 2016
  • Author: Andre Hebra, MD; Chief Editor: Carmen Cuffari, MD  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

No medications are used to treat acute pancreatitis specifically. Therapy is primarily supportive to relieve pain and minimize complications. Such therapy involves intravenous fluid hydration, analgesics, antibiotics (in severe pancreatitis), and treatment of metabolic complications (eg, hyperglycemia, hypocalcemia).

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Analgesics

Class Summary

Analgesic agents are used to reduce pain and inflammation, which is essential to quality patient care. These medications ensure patient comfort, promote pulmonary toilet, and have sedating properties, which are beneficial for patients who have sustained trauma or have painful lesions.

Propoxyphene products were withdrawn from the United States market on November 19th, 2010. The withdrawal was based on new data showing QT prolongation at therapeutic doses. For more information, see the FDA MedWatch safety information.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Feverall, Aspirin Free Anacin)

Acetaminophen is a peripherally acting drug of choice (DOC) for mild pain and elevation of body temperature.

Tramadol (Ultram, Ryzolt, Rybix)

Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic indicated for moderately severe pain. This agent inhibits ascending pain pathways, altering the perception of and response to pain. Tramadol also inhibits reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin.

Meperidine (Demerol)

Meperidine is a synthetic opioid narcotic analgesic indicated for the relief of severe pain. This analgesic has multiple actions similar to those of morphine. However, meperidine may produce less constipation, smooth muscle spasm, and depression of cough reflex than similar analgesic doses of morphine.

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Antibiotics

Class Summary

Imipenem and cilastatin are used in combination for the treatment of multiple-organism infections in which other agents do not have wide-spectrum coverage or are contraindicated because of potential for toxicity. These agents are generally administered in a 1:1 combination.

The combination is a thienamycin derivative with greater potency and broader antimicrobial spectrum than other beta-lactam antibiotics. Cilastatin inhibits dehydropeptidase activity and reduces cilastatin metabolism.

Imipenem and cilastatin (Primaxin)

Imipenem and cilastatin are used in combination for the treatment of multiple-organism infections in which other agents do not have wide-spectrum coverage or are contraindicated because of potential for toxicity. These agents are generally administered in a 1:1 combination.

The combination is a thienamycin derivative with greater potency and broader antimicrobial spectrum than other beta-lactam antibiotics. Cilastatin inhibits dehydropeptidase activity and reduces cilastatin metabolism.

Ampicillin

Ampicillin has bactericidal activity against susceptible organisms and is used as an alternative agent to amoxicillin when a patient is unable to take medication orally.

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin with broad-spectrum gram-negative activity; lower efficacy against gram-positive organisms; and higher efficacy against resistant organisms. This agent acts by arresting bacterial growth through binding to one or more penicillin-binding proteins.

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