Iron Deficiency Anemia Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 05, 2018
  • Author: James L Harper, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is iron deficiency anemia?

What are the signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia?

Which physical findings suggest iron deficiency anemia?

Which tests are performed in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia?

Which tests are performed to establish the etiology of iron deficiency anemia?

Which CBC count results suggest iron deficiency anemia?

Which peripheral smear results suggest iron deficiency anemia?

Which iron study findings suggest iron deficiency anemia?

What is the treatment for iron deficiency anemia?

How is iron deficiency anemia defined and how does it occur?

Which groups are at an increased risk for iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of GI bleeding in the development of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of iron in healthy individuals?

What causes an iron deficiency?

What are the pathways for iron uptake in the proximal small bowel?

What is the difference between heme and nonheme iron?

How does heme iron enter cells?

How does ferric iron enter cells?

Which cell pathway transports nonheme iron?

What are stimulators of iron transport (SFT)?

How much iron is concentrated within enterocytes?

What is enhanced erythropoiesis?

What is transferrin iron and how does it enter cells?

What is the role of nonintestinal cells in iron uptake?

Which dietary factors affect the etiology of iron deficiency anemia?

Can hemorrhaging cause iron deficiency anemia?

Which urine tests are performed to confirm hemoglobinuria in patients with iron deficiency anemia?

What causes hemoglobinuria?

Which tests are performed to confirm renal loss of iron?

What is the role of prolonged achlorhydria in the etiology of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of starch and clay ingestion in the etiology of iron deficiency anemia?

When is iron deficiency anemia a complication of surgery?

Which tests are performed to confirm iron malabsorption?

What is iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA)?

What is the treatment for iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA)?

What is the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in the US?

What is the global prevalence of iron deficiency anemia?

Why is the incidence of iron deficiency anemia higher in infants who drink cow’s milk?

Why are children at higher risk than adults for developing iron deficiency anemia?

Why are women of childbearing age at increased risk for iron deficiency anemia?

How do GI neoplasms cause iron deficiency anemia?

How does the pathogenesis of iron deficiency anemia differ between men and women?

Why is iron deficiency anemia more common in women than in men?

Are there differences in the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among racial groups?

What is the prognosis of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the prognosis of chronic iron deficiency anemia?

What is the prognosis of iron deficiency anemia in children?

Why is awareness education about iron deficiency anemia important for physicians and public health officials?

Presentation

What is the role of medical history in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia?

What history findings are characteristic of moderate iron deficiency?

Can patients with iron deficiency anemia identify the onset of symptoms?

What causes fatigue and diminished capability to perform hard labor in patients with iron deficiency anemia?

What are the effects of a nonhemoglobin deficiency in iron deficiency anemia?

What is the purpose of dietary history in suspected iron deficiency anemia?

Can dietary iron deficiency alone cause iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of pica in iron deficiency anemia?

How much iron is in hemoglobin?

What is the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia?

Can excessive menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) cause iron deficiency anemia?

Which epithelial abnormalities suggest iron deficiency anemia?

Is there a relationship between epithelial abnormalities and iron deficiency anemia?

Is splenomegaly a symptom of iron deficiency anemia?

Why does iron deficiency anemia diminish work performance?

What are the effects of severe iron deficiency anemia?

How are defects in epithelial tissues related to iron deficiency anemia?

Is cold intolerance a possible complication of iron deficiency anemia?

Is papilledema a possible complication of iron deficiency anemia?

Is impaired immune function a possible complication of iron deficiency anemia?

What are the possible neurologic and psychiatric complications of iron deficiency anemia in children?

DDX

Which disorders should be included in the differential diagnoses of iron deficiency anemia?

What are the differential diagnoses for Iron Deficiency Anemia?

Workup

How is iron deficiency anemia diagnosed?

Which tests are performed in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of CBC count in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of peripheral smear findings in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of serum iron and ferritin testing in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia?

Does a finding of hemoglobinuria suggest iron deficiency anemia?

What is hemoglobinuria?

How is renal loss of iron detected in iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of hemoglobin electrophoresis testing in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) testing in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of stool testing in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of osmotic fragility testing (OFT) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of lead (poisoning) testing in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of bone marrow aspiration (BMA) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia?

Which histological findings suggest iron deficiency anemia?

Treatment

What is the standard treatment for iron deficiency anemia?

What is the treatment for postmenopausal women with iron deficiency anemia who are unresponsive to iron supplementation?

When is transfer for specialized treatment necessary for patients with iron deficiency anemia?

What are the BSG guidelines for treating iron deficiency anemia?

What are ACP guidelines for treating iron deficiency anemia?

Are oral ferrous iron salts effective in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

Which dosage of ferrous sulfate is effective in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

Is ferrous gluconate effective in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of ferric citrate (Auryxia) in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

Is carbonyl iron effective in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the usual benchmark for successful iron supplementation in iron deficiency anemia?

When is parental iron indicated in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

Is ferric carboxymaltose injection (Injectafer) FDA approved for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the role of ferumoxytol injection (Feraheme) in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

When is surgical intervention indicated in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

When is transfusion of packed RBCs indicated in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

Does diet affect iron deficiency?

How effective is adding nonheme iron to national diets for prevention of iron deficiency anemia?

What education should be given to patients with an iron-poor diet?

Should physical activity be restricted in patients with iron deficiency anemia?

What populations are at high risk for iron deficiency anemia?

How is iron deficiency anemia prevented in pregnant women?

What iron supplementation should be given to infants?

Should vegetarians be given iron supplementation to prevent iron deficiency anemia?

When is surgical consultation needed in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

What is the most frequently sought specialist consultation in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

Is long-term monitoring required in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia?

Medications

What is the most economical and effective medical treatment for iron deficiency anemia?

Is ferric citrate effective as a treatment for iron deficiency anemia?

Is carbonyl iron an effective treatment for iron deficiency anemia in children?

When is parenteral iron used to treat iron deficiency anemia?

Which medications in the drug class Iron Products are used in the treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia?