Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in Adults Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 13, 2018
  • Author: Shabir Bhimji, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Yasmine S Ali, MD, FACC, FACP, MSCI  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What are the signs and symptoms of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

What are the signs and symptoms of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in infants?

Which physical findings are characteristic of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

Which lab tests are performed in the workup of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

Which imaging studies are performed in the workup of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

Which findings on chest radiograph are characteristic of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What are the indications for echocardiography in the workup of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What are the indications for cardiac catheterization in the workup of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

How is acute cyanosis treated in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

Which factors increase the risk for surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

How is tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) classified?

What are the typical features of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in infants?

What is the efficacy of surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in infancy?

How was tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) first identified and treated?

What are the anatomic features of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

What are the anatomic characteristics of the aorta in adults with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What are the anatomic characteristics of RVOTO in adults with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What are the anatomic characteristics of the pulmonary arteries in adults with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What are the associated heart defects in adults with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the pathophysiology of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in children?

What is the pathophysiology of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

What is the role of arrhythmias in the pathogenesis of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the prevalence of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the prognosis of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What are the possible complications of a repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in infants?

Which factors may worsen cyanosis in infants with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

Which physical findings are characteristic of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

Which auscultation findings are characteristic of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in Adults?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

What is the role of ECG in the workup of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the role of cardiac catheterization in the workup of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the role of radiography in the workup of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the role of echocardiography in the workup of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

Why is MRI the gold standard for assessing tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

What is the role of MRI in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) screening?

Treatment

How is tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) treated in adults?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the role of pulmonary vasodilator drugs in the treatment of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

How is tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) treated in infants?

How is surgical treatment of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) performed in adults?

When is surgical treatment of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) performed in adults?

What are the differences between mechanical and bioprosthetic replacement valves for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the role of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator in the treatment of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the role of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is included in postoperative care following surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in infants?

What are the indications for early reoperation for the repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

How frequently is repair or replacement of the pulmonary valve required following surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in infancy?

What are the reported outcomes for the surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

What are the possible complications of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) surgical repair?

What does long-term monitoring for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) involve?

What is the survival rate of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What is the role of percutaneous valve replacement in the treatment of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

Guidelines

What are the AHA/ACC guidelines on tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

What are the AHA/ACC diagnostic guidelines for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

What are the AHA/ACC treatment guidelines for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults?

What are the AHA/ACC guidelines on the evaluation of the right ventricle-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

What are the AHA/ACC guidelines on the use of the right ventricle-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit in the treatment of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

Medications

What is the goal of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) therapy?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha-adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in Adults?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics are used in the treatment of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in Adults?