Testicular Torsion Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 31, 2018
  • Author: Oreoluwa I Ogunyemi, MD; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is testicular torsion?

Which age groups are at highest risk for testicular torsion?

What are the causes of testicular torsion?

How does testicular torsion occur in neonates?

What is the prevalence of testicular malignancy in patients with testicular torsion?

What is the anatomy of the testes?

What is the purpose of testicular descent, and how does the process happen?

What is the pathophysiology of testicular torsion in neonates?

What is bell clapper deformity, and how is it related to testicular torsion?

What is the progression of untreated testicular torsion?

What causes testicular torsion?

What is the prevalence of testicular torsion?

What is the prognosis of testicular torsion?

What are the salvage rates for testicular torsion?

What are the consequences of testicular torsion?

What causes contralateral disease in testicular torsion?

What causes a decrease in facility following testicular torsion?

Presentation

Which history is characteristic of testicular torsion?

Which specialist should be consulted early in cases of suspected testicular torsion?

Which history is characteristic of testicular torsion among neonates?

What is the role of physical exam in the evaluation of testicular torsion?

Which physical findings are characteristic of testicular torsion?

Which physical finding indicates testicular torsion in the pediatric population?

What is the role of the cremasteric reflex and Prehn sign in the evaluation of testicular torsion?

What are symptoms of testicular torsion?

Which four symptoms indicate testicular torsion?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of testicular torsion?

How is testicular torsion differentiated from epididymitis and orchitis?

How is testicular torsion differentiated from hydrocele, testis tumor or scrotal edema?

What are the differential diagnoses for Testicular Torsion?

Workup

When is surgical exploration indicated in the evaluation of testicular torsion?

What is the TWIST (Testicular Workup for Ischemia and Suspected Torsion) scoring system?

How is the Testicular Workup for Ischemia and Suspected Torsion (TWIST) scoring system used to determine risk for testicular torsion?

What is the role of urinalysis in the evaluation of testicular torsion?

What is the role of blood studies in the evaluation of testicular torsion?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of testicular torsion patients?

Which ultrasonographic findings suggest testicular torsion?

How accurate is ultrasonography in the evaluation of testicular torsion?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of testicular torsion?

What is the role of radionuclide scans in the diagnosis of testicular torsion?

What is the role of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the diagnosis of testicular torsion?

Treatment

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of testicular torsion?

What is the role of nicotinamide in the treatment of testicular torsion?

What is the role of orchiopexy in the treatment of testicular torsion?

What is the efficacy of surgical detorsion for the treatment of testicular torsion in neonates?

What is the efficacy of surgical detorsion in the treatment of testicular torsion in older patients?

How is surgical detorsion performed for testicular torsion?

What are the signs of a viable testis following detorsion?

When is a testicular prosthesis indicated in the treatment of testicular torsion?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of testicular torsion?

Which medications in the drug class Antianxiety Agents are used in the treatment of Testicular Torsion?

Which medications in the drug class Antiemetics are used in the treatment of Testicular Torsion?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics are used in the treatment of Testicular Torsion?