Hypomagnesemia Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 23, 2018
  • Author: Tibor Fulop, MD, PhD, FACP, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What can result from abnormal magnesium levels?

What is the role of magnesium in the body?

What is the average magnesium level in adults and where is magnesium stored?

What are the controlling factors in magnesium homeostasis?

How does the pathophysiology of magnesium equilibrium differ other ions?

How is magnesium absorbed?

What is the role of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) in the absorption of magnesium?

What is the role of the thick ascending limb (TAL) in magnesium reabsorption?

Which genetic mutations cause hypomagnesemia?

What is the role of the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) in the pathogenesis of hypomagnesemia?

What is the incidence of hypomagnesemia among patients treated with cetuximab?

What is the role of basolateral transport into the interstitium in the pathogenesis of hypomagnesemia?

What is the role of gene FXYD2 mutation in the pathogenesis of hypomagnesemia?

What is the role of renal factors in the pathogenesis of hypomagnesemia?

What is the role of chronic metabolic acidosis in the pathogenesis of hypomagnesemia?

What is the role of hormones in the pathogenesis of hypomagnesemia?

What is the prevalence of hypomagnesemia-induced hypokalemia?

How does hypomagnesemia-induced hypokalemia occur?

What are the signs of severe hypomagnesemia?

What are the cardiovascular effects of hypomagnesemia?

What types of cardiac arrhythmia are caused by hypomagnesemia?

How does hypomagnesemia cause cardiac arrhythmia?

How does hypomagnesemia affect blood pressure regulation?

What is the association between hypomagnesemia and coronary artery disease (CAD)?

What does hypomagnesemia suggest in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD)?

When are magnesium supplements to prevent hypomagnesemia indicated in patients with CAD?

What are the initial signs and symptoms of hypomagnesemia?

What is the role of hypomagnesemia in the etiology of osteoporosis?

What is the role of hypomagnesemia in the etiology of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of hypomagnesemia in the etiology of diabetes?

What is the role of hypomagnesemia in the etiology of migraine headache?

Can magnesium deficiency cause asthma?

Which fatal conditions have been linked to hypomagnesemia?

What are the possible causes of hypomagnesemia?

Which conditions cause hypomagnesemia due to decreased magnesium intake?

Which conditions cause hypomagnesemia due to redistribution of magnesium from extracellular to intracellular space?

Which conditions cause hypomagnesemia due to GI magnesium loss?

Which conditions cause hypomagnesemia due to renal magnesium loss?

How can hypomagnesemia be prevented in patients on parenteral nutrition?

How does hungry bone syndrome cause hypomagnesemia?

How does insulin therapy cause hypomagnesemia?

How do hyperadrenergic states cause hypomagnesemia?

How does refeeding syndrome cause hypomagnesemia?

How does acute pancreatitis cause magnesium levels?

How does impaired GI magnesium absorption cause hypomagnesemia?

Which inherited tubular disorders can cause hypomagnesemia?

What is Gitelman syndrome and how does it cause hypomagnesemia?

What is Bartter syndrome and how does it cause hypomagnesemia?

What is familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC)?

What is autosomal-dominant hypocalcemia with hypercalciuria (ADHH)?

What is isolated dominant hypomagnesemia (IDH) with hypocalciuria?

What is isolated recessive hypomagnesemia (IRH) with normocalcemia?

What is hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia (HSH)?

Which medications cause hypomagnesemia?

What causes renal magnesium wasting?

How does cystic fibrosis cause hypomagnesemia?

What is the incidence of hypomagnesemia in the US?

How does the incidence of hypomagnesemia differ among age groups?

What information about hypomagnesemia should patients receive?

What is the prognosis of hypomagnesemia?

Presentation

What is the focus of history in determining the etiology of hypomagnesemia?

What are the neuromuscular manifestations of hypomagnesemia?

What are the cardiovascular manifestations of hypomagnesemia?

What are the metabolic manifestations of hypomagnesemia?

What are the physical findings that suggest hypomagnesemia?

DDX

Why should magnesium levels be measured with other electrolytes?

What are the differential diagnoses for Hypomagnesemia?

Workup

How are magnesium levels measured?

When is measurement of magnesium retention used in the diagnosis of hypomagnesemia?

Which methods of magnesium assessment are used in research studies?

What is the role of protein, potassium, phosphate, and calcium measurement in the diagnosis of hypomagnesemia?

Which ECG findings are characteristic of hypomagnesemia?

How is FE of magnesium used in the diagnosis of hypomagnesemia?

Treatment

Which condition may improve with correction of hypomagnesemia?

Which foods are good sources of magnesium?

What factors should be taken into account when determining magnesium repletion doses to treat hypomagnesemia?

How is hypomagnesemia treated with oral replacement?

When are potassium and calcium replacement indicated in the treatment of hypomagnesemia?

What is the role of sulfate ions in the treatment of hypomagnesemia?

What are the antidotes for hypermagnesemia?

What are the treatment options for diuretic-induced hypomagnesemia?

Medications

What kind of medications are used in the treatment of hypomagnesemia?

Which medications in the drug class Potassium-Sparing Diuretics are used in the treatment of Hypomagnesemia?

Which medications in the drug class Magnesium Salts are used in the treatment of Hypomagnesemia?