Maxillary Nerve Block Medication

Updated: Jul 05, 2016
  • Author: Anusha Cherian, MBBS, MD, DNB; Chief Editor: Meda Raghavendra (Raghu), MD  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

The goal of pharmacotherapy is to reduce pain during the procedure.

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Local Anesthetics, Amides

Class Summary

Local anesthetics are used for local pain relief.

Lidocaine (Xylocaine with epinephrine)

Lidocaine 1-2% with or without epinephrine (1:100,000 or 1:200,000 concentration) is used. Lidocaine is an amide local anesthetic used in 1-2% concentration. The 1% preparation contains 10 mg of lidocaine for each 1 mL of solution; the 2% preparation contains 20 mg of lidocaine for each 1 mL of solution. Lidocaine inhibits depolarization of type C sensory neurons by blocking sodium channels. Epinephrine prolongs the duration of the anesthetic effects from bupivacaine by causing vasoconstriction of the blood vessels surrounding the nerve axons.

Mepivacaine (Polocaine MPF)

Mepivacaine 2-3% prevents the generation and conduction of nerve impulses.

Bupivacaine and epinephrine (Marcaine with epinephrine, Vivacaine, Sensorcaine with epinephrine)

Bupivacaine 0.5% with or without epinephrine may be used. It decreases permeability to sodium ions in neuronal membranes. This results in the inhibition of depolarization, blocking the transmission of nerve impulses. Epinephrine prolongs the duration of the anesthetic effects from bupivacaine by causing vasoconstriction of the blood vessels surrounding the nerve axons.

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