Methemoglobinemia Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 09, 2018
  • Author: Mary Denshaw-Burke, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is methemoglobinemia?

Which history findings are characteristic of methemoglobinemia?

Which symptoms are associated with higher levels of methemoglobin?

What are physical findings characteristic of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of methemoglobinemia?

How is oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood determined in methemoglobinemia?

Which imaging studies may be considered in the workup of methemoglobinemia?

What is the basis for treatment selection in methemoglobinemia?

What is included in initial care of methemoglobinemia?

What are the treatment options for methemoglobinemia?

How does methemoglobin occur?

What causes methemoglobinemia?

What is the course of methemoglobinemia?

Which tests are performed to diagnose methemoglobinemia?

What are the most important aspects of the management of methemoglobinemia?

What is the pathophysiology of methemoglobinemia?

What is the physiologic mechanism for reducing methemoglobin to its original ferrous state?

What is the pathophysiology of congenital (hereditary) methemoglobinemia?

What are the phenotypic varieties of hemoglobin M (Hb M) in methemoglobinemia?

What is the pathophysiology of acquired methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of cyanosis in the pathophysiology of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of methemoglobinemia?

What are the types of hereditary methemoglobinemia due to NADH reductase deficiency?

What causes acquired methemoglobinemia and what are risk factors?

What is the role of nitrites in the etiology of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of dialysis in the etiology of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of chlorates in the etiology of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of anesthetics in the etiology of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of dapsone in the etiology of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of rasburicase therapy in the etiology of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of cirrhosis in the etiology of methemoglobinemia?

Which patients are at highest risk for idiopathic methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of inadequately cooked vegetables in the etiology of methemoglobinemia?

Which substances can cause methemoglobinemia?

What is the prevalence of methemoglobinemia in the US?

What is the global prevalence of methemoglobinemia?

How does the prevalence of methemoglobinemia vary by age?

How does the prevalence of methemoglobinemia vary by sex?

What are the racial predilections for methemoglobinemia?

What is the prognosis of methemoglobinemia?

What is the clinical course of hereditary methemoglobinemia?

What is the prognosis of acquired methemoglobinemia?

What is included in patient education for methemoglobinemia?

Presentation

What is the characteristic history of congenital (hereditary) methemoglobinemia?

What should be the focus of clinical history for acute methemoglobinemia?

What are the signs and symptoms of methemoglobinemia?

What is included in the physical exam for methemoglobinemia?

Which physical findings are characteristic of methemoglobinemia?

DDX

What are diagnostic considerations for methemoglobinemia?

What are the differential diagnoses for Methemoglobinemia?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of arterial blood gas (ABG) in the workup of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of co-oximetry in the workup of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of pulse oximetry in the workup of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of a potassium cyanide test in the workup of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of methemoglobinemia?

Treatment

When is inpatient treatment indicated for methemoglobinemia?

What is included in the initial management of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of methylene blue in the treatment of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of exchange transfusion in the treatment of methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of methemoglobinemia?

How is methemoglobinemia due to metabolic acidosis managed in infants?

Which medications are used in the treatment of mild chronic methemoglobinemia due to enzyme deficiencies?

What is the role of medication in the treatment of hereditary methemoglobinemia?

What is the role of dietary and activity modification in the treatment of methemoglobinemia?

How is methemoglobinemia prevented?

Which specialist consultations are needed in the treatment of methemoglobinemia?

What is involved in long-term monitoring methemoglobinemia?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of methemoglobinemia?

Which medications in the drug class Histamine H2 Antagonists are used in the treatment of Methemoglobinemia?

Which medications in the drug class Vitamins, Water Soluble are used in the treatment of Methemoglobinemia?

Which medications in the drug class Antidotes, Other are used in the treatment of Methemoglobinemia?