Pernicious Anemia Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 18, 2019
  • Author: Srikanth Nagalla, MBBS, MS, FACP; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is pernicious anemia?

What conditions cause pernicious anemia?

What are the treatment options for pernicious anemia?

What is the pathophysiology of pernicious anemia?

What is the role of cobalamin deficiency in the pathophysiology of pernicious anemia?

What is the role of genetics in the pathogenesis of pernicious anemia?

What is the prevalence of antiparietal cell antibodies in patients with pernicious anemia?

What causes cobalamin deficiency in the pathophysiology of pernicious anemia?

What are common comorbidities of pernicious anemia in adults?

What causes cobalamin deficiency in pernicious anemia?

What is the etiologic role of genetics in pernicious anemia?

What causes cobalamin deficiency in children with pernicious anemia?

What is the etiologic role of pancreatic insufficiency in pernicious anemia?

What is the etiologic role of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) in pernicious anemia?

Which disorders of the ileum may lead to pernicious anemia?

Which genetic disorders affect cobalamin transport and metabolism resulting in pernicious anemia?

What is the role of abnormalities of cellular use in the etiology of pernicious anemia?

What is the role of the intestinal lumen in the etiology of pernicious anemia?

What is the prevalence of pernicious anemia?

How does the incidence of pernicious anemia vary by age?

How does the incidence of pernicious anemia vary by sex?

What are the racial predilections of pernicious anemia?

What is the prognosis of pernicious anemia?

Which malignancies are associated with pernicious anemia?

How do intrinsic factor antibodies (IFA) affect the prognosis of pernicious anemia patients?

What is included in patient education for pernicious anemia?

Presentation

What is the initial presentation of pernicious anemia?

What are the general symptoms of pernicious anemia?

What are the cardiac symptoms of pernicious anemia?

What are the GI symptoms of pernicious anemia?

What are the neurologic symptoms of pernicious anemia?

What are the genitourinary symptoms of pernicious anemia?

What are the symptoms of thrombotic complications in pernicious anemia?

What is the typical appearance of patients with pernicious anemia?

What are the physical findings suggestive of pernicious anemia?

What is included in the neurologic assessment of pernicious anemia?

DDX

How is pernicious anemia defined?

What is thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome (TRMA) and how is it diagnosed?

Which conditions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pernicious anemia?

What are the differential diagnoses for Pernicious Anemia?

Workup

What is included in the workup of pernicious anemia?

Which peripheral blood smear findings indicate pernicious anemia?

Which indirect bilirubin and serum lactate dehydrogenase findings suggest pernicious anemia?

Which gastric secretions findings suggest pernicious anemia?

What is the role of serum cobalamin measurement in the workup of pernicious anemia?

How are serum folic acid, methylmalonic acid, and homocysteine values used to differentiate folic acid deficiency from pernicious anemia?

What is the role of intrinsic factor (IF) antibodies in the diagnosis of pernicious anemia?

What is the role of the Schilling test in the workup of pernicious anemia?

How is administration of vitamin B12 used in the diagnosis of pernicious anemia?

What is the role of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy in the workup of pernicious anemia?

Treatment

What are the goals of treatment for pernicious anemia?

When is inpatient care indicated in the treatment of pernicious anemia?

What is the role of cobalamin therapy in the treatment of pernicious anemia?

What is the efficacy of cobalamin therapy for pernicious anemia?

What is the role of blood transfusions in the treatment of pernicious anemia?

Which dietary and activity modifications are required for the treatment of pernicious anemia?

How is pernicious anemia prevented?

Which specialist consultations are needed for the treatment of pernicious anemia?

What is included in long-term monitoring of pernicious anemia?

Medications

Which medications are used for the treatment of pernicious anemia?

Which medications in the drug class Vitamins are used in the treatment of Pernicious Anemia?