Tympanoplasty Periprocedural Care

Updated: Mar 02, 2016
  • Author: Brian Kip Reilly, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
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Periprocedural Care

Pre-Procedure Planning

History

Evaluation of the patient for tympanoplasty involves a detailed history and physical examination. Important aspects of the history include the duration of the perforation, severity of otalgia, otorrhea, hearing loss, vertigo, previous attempts at repair, otitis media, and otitis externa. The number and frequency of infections (including time of most recent infection) provide insight into the severity of disease. Past otologic surgical history is critical and should include any history of PE tubes and details of any prior tympanoplasties (including approaches, grafts used, outcomes).

Physical Examination

The physical examination should focus on pneumatic otoscopy and otomicroscopy. In the office, tuning forks can give an important assessment of hearing; in older patients, tuning forks can be used to confirm audiometric findings. Additional assessments include documentation of facial nerve functionality and inspection for previous incisions. Although a small amount of cerumen is tolerated in the routine otoscopic examination, obstructive cerumen should be removed when evaluating a patient for tympanoplasty in order to provide an unimpeded view of the entire tympanic membrane.

Monomeric (or more accurately, dimeric) areas may appear as perforations until inspected more closely under microscopy. Retraction pockets should be closely inspected for accumulation of squamous debris. Considering the status of the contralateral ear when considering repair of a tympanic membrane perforation is essential. The ear with more significant hearing loss is usually operated on first if bilateral perforations exist.

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Patient Preparation

Prior to considering surgery in any patient, acute and chronic infections should be controlled using ototopical, oral, and/or intravenous antibiotics or antifungals, if indicated. Ototopical drops with steroids may also be needed if granulation tissue or aural polyps are visualized to improve inflammation. Ideally, an ear should be “dry” for 3-4 months before surgery is performed to enhance the chance of success. Individuals who undergo surgery must keep the operated ear dry for a period of several weeks or until the graft has healed. Operating on an actively infected ear is contraindicated.

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Monitoring & Follow-up

Tympanoplasty is an outpatient procedure for adults and for most children. Postoperative hearing should be immediately assessed in the recovery room with a tuning fork. If a pressure dressing is applied, it should be removed on the first or second postoperative day depending on surgeon preference.

Although the ear must be kept otherwise dry, patients are allowed to wash their hair, while keeping a cotton ball with Vaseline in the canal for dry ear measures. Pain is usually managed with acetaminophen and/or ibuprofen. Narcotics such as hydrocodone (Vicodin or Norco) are usually prescribed when a post-auricular approach is used. Oral antibiotics are the surgeon’s preference and can be given for 5-7 days. A cotton ball is replaced in the external auditory meatus as needed for bleeding or drainage. Ototopical drops are typically administered postoperatively for 7-21 days after surgery and continued until the first postoperative visit.

At the first postoperative visit (3-4 weeks after surgery), the ear is examined under the microscope, and any canal packing or residual antibiotic is removed. At this time, a good assessment can be made as to the healing and neovascularization of the graft. Granulation tissue at the tympanomeatal flap is addressed. Ototopical drops are continued as the graft continues to heal. Postoperative audiometric testing is delayed until healing is complete (typically 6-12 weeks). Follow-up visits are scheduled to ensure complete proper healing and restoration of hearing.

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