Protein S Deficiency Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 20, 2018
  • Author: Mohammad Muhsin Chisti, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Perumal Thiagarajan, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is protein S deficiency?

What is the pathophysiology of protein S deficiency?

What is the role of vitamin K in the pathophysiology of protein S deficiency?

What is the role of C4BP in the pathophysiology of protein S deficiency?

What are the types of protein S deficiency?

What is the role of age in the pathophysiology of protein S deficiency?

What is the role of APC in the pathophysiology of protein S deficiency?

What is the prevalence of protein S deficiency in the US?

What is the global prevalence of protein S deficiency?

What is the morbidity associated with protein S deficiency?

What causes morbidity in patients with protein S deficiency?

What is the racial predilection of protein S deficiency?

What is the sexual predilection of protein S deficiency?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of protein S deficiency?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of protein S deficiency?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of protein S deficiency?

Which physical findings are characteristic of protein S deficiency?

Which physical findings are characteristic of deep vein thrombosis in patients with protein S deficiency?

Which physical findings are characteristic of pulmonary embolism in patients with protein S deficiency?

What are causes of protein S deficiency?

What are causes of hereditary protein S deficiency?

What are causes of acquired protein S deficiency?

What is the role of sickle cell anemia in the etiology of protein S deficiency?

DDX

When is screening for protein S deficiency indicated?

Which congenital thrombophilias should be included in the differential diagnoses of protein S deficiency?

What are the differential diagnoses for Protein S Deficiency?

Workup

How is protein S deficiency diagnosed?

What are the phenotypes of protein S deficiency?

What is the role of free protein S antigen testing in the diagnosis of protein S deficiency?

Treatment

What is the role of direct thrombin inhibitors in the treatment of protein S deficiency?

How is protein S deficiency treated?

How is heparin administered in the treatment of protein S deficiency?

How is warfarin administered in the treatment of protein S deficiency?

What is the role of direct factor Xa inhibitors in the treatment of protein S deficiency?

How is thrombosis prevented in patients with protein S deficiency?

What are the dietary modifications used treatment of protein S deficiency?

What are the activity modifications used treatment of protein S deficiency?

Medications

What is the role of dabigatran in the treatment of protein S deficiency?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of protein S deficiency?

What is the role of direct factor Xa inhibitors in the management of protein S deficiency?

What is the role of rivaroxaban in the treatment of protein S deficiency?

What is the role of apixaban in the treatment of protein S deficiency?

What is the role of edoxaban in the treatment of protein S deficiency?

Which anticoagulants are being investigated as possible treatments for protein S deficiency?

Which medications in the drug class Anticoagulants are used in the treatment of Protein S Deficiency?

Follow-up

When is prophylaxis indicated for patients with protein S deficiency?

How is protein S deficiency treated during pregnancy?

What are the options for bridging anticoagulation in patients with protein S deficiency?