PALS - VF/VT Arrest 

Updated: Mar 21, 2014
  • Author: James J Lamberg, DO; Chief Editor: Meda Raghavendra (Raghu), MD  more...
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Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS): Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) and Ventricular Fibrillation (VF)

1. Initial evaluation [1, 2, 3]

  • Activate emergency response system
  • Basic life support (BLS) algorithm

2. Initial intervention

  • Start high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
  • Administer oxygen if hypoxemic
  • Attach monitor/defibrillator
  • Monitor blood pressure and oximetry
  • Identify and treat reversible causes

3. Check rhythm

  • Shockable rhythm = VF/VT
  • Nonshockable rhythm = asystole/pulseless electrical activity (PEA)

4. Initial treatment of VF/VT

  • Defibrillate immediately
  • Continue CPR for 2 minutes
  • Obtain intravenous (IV)/intraosseous (IO) access
  • Consider advanced airway, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETCO 2)

5. Administer vasopressor (epinephrine q3-5min)

6. Check pulse and rhythm (every 2 minutes)

  • Shockable rhythm = VF/VT
  • Nonshockable rhythm = asystole/PEA
  • Rotate chest compressors

7. Continuing treatment of VF/VT

  • Defibrillate immediately
  • Continue CPR for 2 minutes
  • Treat reversible cause

8. Consider antiarrhythmic (amiodarone for refractory VT/VF)

9. Check pulse and rhythm (every 2 minutes)

  • If shockable, return to step 4
  • If nonshockable, follow asystole/PEA algorithm
  • Rotate chest compressors

Drug therapy

See the list below:

  • Epinephrine 0.01 mg/kg IV/IO q3-5min; use 1:10000 concentration (0.1 mL/kg)
  • Epinephrine 0.1 mg/kg endotracheal tube (ETT) q3-5min; use 1:1000 concentration (0.1 mL/kg)
  • Amiodarone 5 mg/kg IV/IO; may repeat up to 2 times
  • Flush medications with fluid after and elevate extremity for 10-20 seconds
  • Combining medications is not recommended and may cause harm
  • Routine use of sodium bicarbonate is not recommended

Shock energy

See the list below:

  • First shock: 2 J/kg
  • Second shock: 4 J/kg
  • Subsequent shocks: ≥4 J/kg, maximum 10 J/kg or adult dose

CPR quality

See the list below:

  • Push hard and fast (>100/min)
  • Depth at least one-third anteroposterior chest diameter
  • Allow complete chest recoil
  • Minimize interruptions in compressions
  • Avoid excessive ventilation
  • Rotate compressor every 2 minutes
  • Compression-to-ventilation ratio of 30:2 for a single rescuer, 15:2 for multiple rescuers
  • Continuous compressions if advanced airway present


See the list below:

  • In children, attach and use defibrillator as soon as available
  • In infants, there are currently no defibrillation recommendations
  • Minimize interruptions in chest compressions before and after shock
  • Resume CPR beginning with compressions immediately after each shock

Advanced airway

See the list below:

  • Supraglottic advanced airway or endotracheal (ET) intubation
  • Waveform capnography to confirm and monitor ETT placement
  • Ventilation every 6-8 seconds asynchronous with compressions
  • Stop CPR for no longer than 10 seconds for the placement of an advanced airway

Reversible causes

See the list below:

  • H's: Hypovolemia, hypoxia, H+ (acidosis), hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia
  • T's: Toxins, tamponade (cardiac), tension pneumothorax, thrombosis (pulmonary, coronary)

Return of spontaneous circulation

See the list below:

  • Pulse and blood pressure present
  • Abrupt sustained increase in PETCO 2 (typically >40 mm Hg)
  • Spontaneous arterial pressure waves with intra-arterial monitoring