Transfusion Reactions Questions & Answers

Updated: Jan 02, 2019
  • Author: S Gerald Sandler, MD, FACP, FCAP; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are the signs and symptoms of acute transfusion reactions?

What are the initial steps taken when a transfusion reaction is suspected?

What are delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions (DHTRs)?

How are acute transfusion reactions typically classified?

What is the pathophysiology of transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI)?

What is the pathophysiology of circulatory overload type transfusion reaction?

What causes a bacterial contamination leading to acute transfusion reactions?

What is the pathophysiology of acute hemolytic transfusion reactions?

What is the pathophysiology of nonhemolytic febrile transfusion reactions?

What is the pathophysiology of an allergic transfusion reaction?

What is the pathophysiology of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions (DHTRs)?

What is the prevalence of transfusion reactions in the US?

Which age groups has the highest incidence of transfusion reactions?

What is the morbidity and mortality of transfusion reactions?

What are the racial predilections for transfusion reactions?

How does pregnancy increase the risk of transfusion reactions?

How does age affect the risk for transfusion reactions?

Presentation

What should be the focus of history in the evaluation of transfusion reactions?

What are physical findings suggestive of acute hemolytic or nonhemolytic transfusion reactions?

What are the physical findings suggestive of anaphylactic transfusion reactions?

What are the physical findings suggestive of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)?

What are the physical findings suggestive of circulatory (volume) overload transfusion reaction?

What are the physical findings suggestive of a bacterial contamination transfusion reaction?

What causes acute hemolytic transfusion reactions?

What causes febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions?

What causes allergic transfusion reactions?

What causes anaphylactic transfusion reactions?

What causes transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)?

What causes circulatory (volume) overload transfusion reactions?

What causes a bacterial contamination (sepsis) transfusion reaction?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Transfusion Reactions?

Workup

Which lab studies are performed in the workup of acute hemolytic transfusion reactions?

How is repeat ABO typing performed in the workup of transfusion reactions?

What is the role of plasma analysis in the evaluation of transfusion reactions?

How is hematuria and hemoglobinuria distinguished in the evaluation of transfusion reactions?

What is the role of direct antiglobulin testing in the evaluation of transfusion reactions?

Which lab studies are performed in the evaluation of febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions?

Which lab studies are performed in the evaluation of allergic transfusion reactions?

Which lab studies are performed in the evaluation of anaphylactic transfusion reactions?

Which lab studies are performed in the evaluation of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)?

Which lab studies are performed in the evaluation of bacterial contamination transfusion reactions?

Which lab studies are performed in the evaluation of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions (DHTRs)?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for acute hemolytic transfusion reactions?

How are febrile transfusion reactions managed?

How are allergic transfusion reactions managed?

How are anaphylactic transfusion reactions managed?

How is transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) managed?

How are circulatory (volume) overload transfusion reactions managed?

How is bacterial contamination (sepsis) transfusion reaction managed?

Which medications have been used off-label in the treatment of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions (DHTRs)?

What specialist consultations are needed for the treatment of transfusion reactions?

Guidelines

Which organizations have issued guidelines for investigating and managing transfusion reactions?

Medications

What is the role of antihistamines in the treatment of transfusion reactions?

Which medications are used in the treatment of transfusion reactions?

Which medications in the drug class Loop Diuretics are used in the treatment of Transfusion Reactions?

Which medications in the drug class Vasopressors are used in the treatment of Transfusion Reactions?

Which medications in the drug class Osmotic Diuretics are used in the treatment of Transfusion Reactions?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics and Antipyretics are used in the treatment of Transfusion Reactions?

Which medications in the drug class Antihistamines are used in the treatment of Transfusion Reactions?

Follow-up

How are transfusion reactions prevented?

What are the complications of acute hemolytic transfusion reactions?

What is the prognosis of transfusion reactions?