Myelodysplastic Syndrome Questions & Answers

Updated: Jul 24, 2018
  • Author: Emmanuel C Besa, MD; Chief Editor: Koyamangalath Krishnan, MD, FRCP, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How does myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) affect hematopoietic cell lines?

Which hematopoietic cell lines are involved in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What presentation suggests myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the standard care for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of clonal mutations in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How is myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) classified?

What causes cytopenias in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the cytogenetic types of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which patient group with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) has a worse prognosis?

What is the role of balanced translocation abnormalities in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the prevalence of primary (idiopathic) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of cancer treatment in the etiology of secondary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which chemical exposures may cause myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is familial myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of chronic immune stimulation in the etiology of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in the US?

Why has the incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) risen in the US?

How does the incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) vary by age?

What are the racial predilections for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in the United Kingdom?

What is the progression of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which organizations have developed risk classifications for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the French-American-British (FAB) classifications of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How are refractory anemia (RA) and refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS) characterized in the French-American-British (FAB) classifications of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How are refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and refractory anemia with excess blasts in transition to acute myeloid leukemia (RAEB-T) characterized in the French-American-British (FAB) classifications of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the prognosis of of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in patients who transition to more advanced stages?

What is the most difficult type of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) to characterize?

How does the WHO classify subtypes of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML)?

What is the WHO classification scheme for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How is the Myelodysplastic Syndrome International Prognostic Score for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) calculated?

What is the prognosis of each Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) risk group?

Which features predict mean survival of 18-24 months or longer for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which features predict mean survival of 6-12 months for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Presentation

Which clinical history should prompt the workup for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are some signs and symptoms of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/

What are the signs and symptoms of low platelet count in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the signs and symptoms of serious bacterial or fungal infections in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which physical findings suggest myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which physical findings suggest severe anemia in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the significance of an enlarged spleen in the evaluation for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are manifestations of neutropenia in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

DDX

What conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Myelodysplastic Syndrome?

Workup

What is included in the workup of possible myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which peripheral blood count findings suggest myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How is anemia characterized in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How is neutropenia characterized in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which granulation abnormalities suggest myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which immunologic abnormalities suggest myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which bone marrow changes are characteristic of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which bone marrow finding is diagnostic of the refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS) type of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of dysplastic WBC changes in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How is single-lineage dysplasia used in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which morphologic abnormalities suggest myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which abnormalities in platelet production suggest myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which cytogenetic techniques are performed in the evaluation of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How prevalent are chromosomal abnormalities found in cytogenetic studies of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How are chromosomal abnormalities used in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the benefit of the WHO classification system in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the histologic findings characteristic of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How is the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) used to stage myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the risk categorizations and predicted clinical outcomes of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) subtype requires an actual monocyte count for the diagnosis?

How is chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) classified in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Treatment

What is the standard care for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the basis for selection of treatment in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Where should patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) be treated?

What type of facilities provide long-term management for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is included in supportive care of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How are transfusion-related complications decreased in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the possible complications of RBC transfusions to treat myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the guidelines for iron chelation in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of deferoxamine in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of deferasirox in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the benefits of platelet transfusion in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How is neutropenia managed in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of bone marrow stimulation in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of iron supplementation in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RA) in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

When is combination therapy indicated in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in elderly patients?

What is the efficacy of isotretinoin (13 cis-retinoic acid) (Accutane) in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the efficacy of combination for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of lenalidomide in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the efficacy of lenalidomide in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of azacitidine and decitabine in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the efficacy of azacitidine and decitabine for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which genetic mutations are most likely to respond to hypomethylating agents in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of immunosuppressive therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which new therapies are under investigation for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of bone marrow transplantations (BMT) in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the mortality rate for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) following bone marrow transplantation (BMT)?

Which factors limit the use of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of nonmyeloablative (mini) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

When determining the prognosis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) which risk factors receive 1 point?

When determining the prognosis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) which risk factors receive 2 points?

What are the 3-year overall survival rates after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the clinical outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Guidelines

Which organizations have issued guidelines for the diagnosis and management of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the diagnostic criteria for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)–unclassified (MDS-U)?

Which classification system is used by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) diagnostic guidelines for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the diagnostic criteria for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with single lineage dysplasia (MDS-SLD)?

What are the diagnostic criteria for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with ring sideroblasts (MDS-RS)?

What are the diagnostic criteria for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with multilineage dysplasia (MDS-MLD)?

What are the diagnostic criteria for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with excess blasts-1 (MDS-EB-1)?

What are the diagnostic criteria for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with excess blasts-2 (MDS-EB-2)?

What are the diagnostic criteria for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with isolated del(5q)?

Which prognostic scoring systems are commonly used for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How is the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) calculated for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How is the risk for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) classified in the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS)?

How is the WHO Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) calculated for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How is the risk for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) classified in the WHO Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS)?

How is Lower-Risk Prognostic Scoring System (LR-PSS) calculated for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which organizations have released treatment guidelines for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the NCCN guidelines for supportive care for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the treatment guidelines for low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) treatment guidelines for higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Medications

What is the basis for treatment selection for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are the treatment options for late-stage myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

When is cytotoxic chemotherapy indicated for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

What are new drug combinations for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

How are medical comorbidities managed in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic agents, Miscellaneous are used in the treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Immunomodulators are used in the treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic Agent, Methylation Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Hematopoietic Growth Factors are used in the treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Retinoid-lilke Agents are used in the treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome?