HIV Infection and AIDS Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 08, 2019
  • Author: Nicholas John Bennett, MBBCh, PhD, MA(Cantab), FAAP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is HIV and how is it transmitted?

What are the signs and symptoms of HIV infection?

What are risk factors for HIV exposure?

What are the recommendations for HIV screening?

What is the role of CD4 T-cell count in the risk assessment of opportunistic infection in HIV infection?

What is the role of viral load in peripheral blood in the management of HIV infection?

Which HIV test is FDA approved?

What tests are performed following the initial diagnosis of HIV infection?

What are the three categories of HIV?

What are the DHHS guidelines for initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection?

What are the classes for antiretroviral agents used in the treatment of HIV infection?

Which regimens are preferred by the DHHS guidelines for treatment-naive patients with HIV infection?

What is the basis for regimen selection for treatment of HIV infection?

When is prophylaxis against opportunistic infections indicated in the management of HIV infection?

Which treatments may be needed in the management of HIV infection?

What are the CDC recommended HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens?

What is the expanded PEP regimen for HIV infection?

What is HIV and how is it transmitted?

What is the most common route of HIV transmission?

How does the global distribution of HIV species vary?

What is the history of the HIV epidemic in the US?

What are the stigmas associated with HIV infection?

What common misinformation about HIV exists?

How has antiretroviral therapy (ART) affected HIV survival rates?

How is HIV-related health information linked to other health information?

What is the pathophysiology of HIV infection?

How is HIV characterized?

What are the three species-defining retroviral genes of HIV?

What are the HIV-1 accessory genes?

What are the accessory proteins of HIV?

What is the pathogenesis of AIDS?

What is the role of CD4+ helper T cells in the pathogenesis of HIV infection?

What is the global pattern for opportunistic infections in HIV infection?

What is the role of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in the pathogenesis of HIV infection?

What is a feature of HIV replication in GALT?

How is the discrepancy in viral load between GALT and blood measurements explained?

What have the studies of T-cell–replication kinetics revealed about HIV infection?

What is the role of cell-cycling in the pathogenesis of HIV infection?

How do the HIV proteins affect T-cell function?

What is the role of direct cytotoxic effects of viral replication in the pathogenesis of HIV infection?

Which individuals tend to be resistant to HIV infection?

What is the role of the chemokine-related receptor (CXCR4) in the pathogenesis of HIV infection?

What is the role of stem-cell transplantation in the management of HIV infection?

What is the relationship between T-cell loss and how HIV progresses to AIDS?

What is the role of lymph nodes in the pathogenesis of HIV infection?

How does HIV replicate?

How is HIV compartmentalized?

What are the three distinct phases of HIV pathogenesis?

What are the first cellular targets of HIV?

Where does HIV tend to integrate in the body?

What happens during acute seroconversion of HIV infection?

How long will it take for symptoms of HIV infection to appear?

What are the HIV symptoms during the acute seroconversion stage of infection?

When is AIDS diagnosed?

What is the primary mechanism for immunologic control of HIV infection?

When are patients at a higher risk for opportunistic infections and other AIDS-related events?

Which opportunistic infections and conditions are seen in patients with AIDS?

What is HIV encephalopathy?

What causes HIV infection?

What is the prevalence of HIV infection in the US?

What is the incidence of AIDS in the US?

Who is at higher risk of infection with HIV?

What group is most likely to be unaware they are HIV positive?

Among groups at high risk for HIV, what is the effect of health care visits?

What is the mortality rate of HIV infection?

How does the prevalence of HIV vary by age and race?

What is the global prevalence of HIV infection?

Which races and ethnicities in the US have the highest prevalence of HIV infection?

How does the prevalence of HIV vary by sex?

Who is at a higher risk for acquiring HIV infection?

What is the prognosis of untreated HIV infection?

What is the efficacy of antiretroviral medications for treatment of HIV-2?

How long is the survival period for untreated AIDS?

What can increase survival for AIDS patients?

What is the mortality rate of AIDS in New York City?

What is the effect of pre-existing infections on people with AIDS?

Which organisms become pathogenic in patients with AIDS?

What are adverse effects of antiviral medications for AIDS?

What is the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with HIV infection?

What information about HIV should patients receive?

What are the risks of unprotected sex when both partners are HIV positive?

What information about HIV should IV drug users receive?

Presentation

What are the risk factors for exposure to HIV?

What are the signs and symptoms of HIV infection?

What are the signs and symptoms of AIDS?

What are the sequelae of HIV infection?

Which physical findings suggest HIV infections?

Which minor opportunistic infections suggest HIV infection?

DDX

What causes of immune suppression should be included in the differential diagnoses of HIV infection?

What are the differential diagnoses for HIV Infection and AIDS?

Workup

Why is screening for HIV infection needed?

What secondary testing is helpful in the diagnosis of HIV infection?

What are the CDC recommendations for HIV testing?

What is the Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test?

How is the HIV rapid test used?

What is the staging of HIV infection?

What baseline tests are performed in newly diagnosed patients with HIV infection?

What are the USPSTF recommendations for HIV screening?

What are the ACOG recommendations for HIV testing?

What are the ACOG guidelines on HIV testing during pregnancy?

What are the CDC recommendations for HIV screening in high risk groups?

What are the benefits of early diagnosis of HIV infection?

What test should be used for HIV screening?

How are HIV test results reported?

When is HIV-2 testing indicated?

Which testing is most effective for early detection of HIV infection?

What is the CDC diagnostic algorithm for HIV diagnosis?

What is the role of CD4 T-cell count in the management of HIV infection?

What is the role of CD4 T-cell percentage in the management of HIV in children under five years of age?

What is the role of RT-PCR in the management of HIV infection?

What affects the rate of progression of HIV infection to AIDS?

How are HIV viral loads suppressed?

What is HIV virologic failure?

When is viral cultures for HIV indicted?

What is disrupted during HIV infection?

Which HIV test is performed only in newborns?

What can guide therapy for HIV infection?

What studies are performed in newly diagnosed patients with HIV infection?

Which tests are performed to evaluate tuberculosis infection in patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection?

Which tests is used to evaluate CMV infection in patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection?

Which tests are used to screen for syphilis in patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection?

Which STDs are evaluated in patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection?

Why is hepatitis serology performed in patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection?

What is toxoplasma antibody testing performed in newly diagnosed HIV infections?

What are the baseline values that may be affected by antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection?

What are histologic findings characteristic of HIV infection and AIDS?

What is the CDC classification of HIV infection?

What happens once an HIV infection has been staged into a higher clinical category?

Treatment

How is treatment for HIV infection determined?

What is the principal treatment for HIV infection?

What are the results of successful HAART therapy for HIV infection?

Which secondary diseases may be reduced for HIV patients on HAART?

Who has released treatment guidelines for HIV infection?

What are the IDSA treatment guidelines for HIV infection?

How has the introduction of HAART affected mortality rates?

What increase in non-AIDS-defining cancer is attributed to HIV infection?

What are strong predictors of mortality for AIDS?

When should antiretroviral therapy (ART) be initiated for HIV infection?

What are the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) recommendations for management of HIV infection?

What are the adverse effects of delay in antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection?

At what CD4+T cell count should antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV be initiated?

What is the result of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during the acute seroconversion period in HIV infection?

What are the International Antiviral Society-USA (IAS-USA) antiretroviral treatment recommendations for adults with HIV infection?

What are the classes for antiretroviral agents for HIV infection?

What are the DHHS guidelines for treatment-naive patients with HIV infection?

How should HIV be treated during pregnancy?

What is the basis for antiretroviral regimen selection for HIV infection?

What the DHHS recommend for genotypic testing in HIV infection?

What mutations could result in increased susceptibility to a particular drug in HIV infection?

What is the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) on HIV/AIDS?

What is the role of dolutegravir (Tivicay) in the treatment of HIV infection?

What is an important factor in selecting first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection?

What is the role of zidovudine-lamivudine plus abacavir for the treatment of HIV infection?

What is the efficacy of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (Stribild) for the treatment of HIV infection?

What the benefits of 21-day antiretroviral regimens during pregnancy?

Why is prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jiroveci important for HIV management?

When is PCP prophylaxis discontinued in the management of HIV infection?

What is the role of TMP-SMX in the management of HIV infection?

When are HIV patients at risk for Mycobacterium avium complex infection?

When is prophylaxis for fungal or viral infections indicated in the management of HIV infection?

What is the role of oral ganciclovir in the management of AIDS?

How should opportunistic infections be treated in HIV infection?

What is the relationship between TB and HIV infection?

What is HIV lipodystrophy?

What is the role of acyclovir in the treatment of HIV infection?

What is the role of crofelemer in the treatment of HIV infection?

How is HIV infection prevented?

What are sexual transmission prevention measures for HIV infection?

What is the role of STDs in the transmission of HIV?

Which sexual acts are more likely to lead to HIV infection than others?

How do oral contraceptives affect the risk for HIV transmission?

What are vertical transmission prevention measures for HIV infection?

How effective is triple antiviral therapy for HIV during pregnancy?

How is vertical transmission of HIV-2 prevented?

What is the mother-to-child transmission rate of HIV-2 in France?

What measures can be taken to prevent vertical HIV transmission?

What is the role of zidovudine in the prevention of vertical HIV transmission?

How is blood-borne transmission of HIV prevented?

What has the CDC recommended for HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP)?

What regimens does the CDC recommend for PEP?

What does an expanded PEP regimen include?

What is the role of nevirapine in the prevention of HIV infection?

What HIV vaccinations are available?

What is the role of antiretroviral medications for the prevention of HIV transmission?

What is the efficacy of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in the prevention of HIV infection?

What are the CDC guidelines for PrEP in HIV infection?

What is the efficacy of PrEP in preventing HIV infection?

What are the limitations in the US to broad implementation of PrEP for prevention of HIV infection?

What was the reduction in risk with compliant pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV infection?

What is the role in topical antivirals in the prevention of HIV infection?

What does the International Antiviral Society-USA (IAS-USA) recommend for HIV prevention in adolescents and adults?

Which specialists should be consulted for all new cases of HIV infection?

Which tests does the DHHS recommend be performed every 3 months in patients with HIV infection?

What is the role of basic chemistry studies in the management of HIV infection?

How often should fasting lipid profiles be measured in the management of HIV infection?

How often should T-cell counts be monitored in the management of HIV infection?

Guidelines

What are the CDC guidelines on HIV screening in men who have sex with men (MSM)?

What are the European AIDS Clinical Society guidelines on antiretroviral (ART) therapy and chronic HIV infection?

Medications

What is the role of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection?

What are the benefits of combination therapy for the treatment of HIV infection?

Which antiretroviral combination products are used to treat HIV infection?

What have been shown to be safe and effective for treatment of black patients with HIV infection?

What is the role of Triumeq in the treatment of HIV infection?

What is the role of the NNRTI doravirine in the treatment of HIV infection?

Which medications in the drug class Antiretroviral agent, nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor are used in the treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS?

Which medications in the drug class Antiretroviral Agent, Protease Inhibitor are used in the treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS?

Which medications in the drug class Antiretroviral agent, non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor are used in the treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS?

Which medications in the drug class Antiretroviral Agent, Integrase Inhibitor are used in the treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS?

Which medications in the drug class Antiretroviral Agent, Fusion Inhibitor are used in the treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS?

Which medications in the drug class Antiretroviral agent, CCR5 antagonist are used in the treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS?

Which medications in the drug class HIV, Entry Inhibitors are used in the treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS?

Which medications in the drug class Complete Regimen Combinations are used in the treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS?

Which medications in the drug class Antiretroviral Combinations are used in the treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS?

Which medications in the drug class CYP3A4 Inhibitors are used in the treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotic, Sulfonamide Derivative are used in the treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS?

Which medications in the drug class Growth hormone releasing factor are used in the treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS?