Mycetoma Follow-up

Updated: Jan 09, 2017
  • Author: Folusakin O Ayoade, MD; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
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Further Outpatient Care

Patients with mycetoma should receive maintained medical treatment and follow-up care for several months to years.



There is currently no vaccine.

Educate patients to avoid activities that expose them to agents of mycetoma. Instruct patients to avoid carrying sticks and thorny branches that have had contact with soil, especially if contaminated with cattle dung. [12] ​ Footwear and protective clothing in at-risk populations, especially in developing countries, is also recommended.

The glycolytic enzyme fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) is expressed on the hyphae present in the mycetoma grain. FBA antibody levels were found to be significantly higher in eumycetoma patient sera when compared with healthy Sudanese controls. Therefore, FBA might be useful as candidate antigen for a future vaccine against mycetoma. [36]



Complications of mycetoma result mainly from toxicity due to prolonged administration of antimicrobial or antifungal drugs.

Disfigurement of the affected body parts may be a consequence of delayed treatment.

Amputation may result from neglected chronic infections.

Secondary bacterial infections can progress to full-blown bacteremia or septicemia, resulting in death. [2]



Mycetoma carries a good prognosis if the disease is promptly diagnosed and treated. Although mycetoma carries a low risk of mortality, amputations or ankylosis can lessen the quality of life. [37]

In late stages of mycetoma, the treatment response is limited.