Anthrax Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 05, 2021
  • Author: David J Cennimo, MD, FAAP, FACP, AAHIVS; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are the signs and symptoms of inhalational anthrax?

What is anthrax?

What are the routes of exposure to anthrax?

What are the signs and symptoms of cutaneous anthrax?

What are the signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal anthrax?

What are the signs and symptoms of intestinal anthrax?

How is anthrax diagnosed?

What is anthrax?

What is the pathophysiology of anthrax meningitis?

What is the pathophysiology of anthrax?

What is the pathophysiology of cutaneous anthrax?

What is the pathophysiology of intestinal anthrax?

What is the pathophysiology of inhalational anthrax?

What causes anthrax?

Which factors increase the risk for inhalation anthrax?

What is the prevalence of anthrax in the US?

What is the global prevalence of anthrax?

Which patient groups are at highest risk for anthrax?

What is the prognosis of anthrax?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of cutaneous anthrax?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of anthrax?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of oropharyngeal anthrax?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of intestinal anthrax?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of inhalational anthrax?

What are the signs and symptoms of inhalational anthrax?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of septicemic anthrax?

Which physical findings are characteristic of anthrax?

Which physical findings are characteristic of cutaneous anthrax?

Which physical findings are characteristic of oropharyngeal anthrax?

Which physical findings are characteristic of intestinal anthrax?

Which physical findings are characteristic of inhalational anthrax?

DDX

How is cutaneous anthrax differentiated from bubonic plague?

How is inhalational anthrax differentiated from zoonotic atypical pneumonias?

How is intestinal anthrax differentiated from dysentery?

How is anthrax differentiated from ulceroglandular tularemia?

How is cutaneous anthrax differentiated from syphilis?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of anthrax?

What are the differential diagnoses for Anthrax?

Workup

How is anthrax diagnosed?

What is the role of gram stain and blood culture in the diagnosis of anthrax?

What is the role of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of anthrax?

What is the role of imaging in the diagnosis of anthrax?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the diagnosis of anthrax?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of anthrax?

Treatment

How is anthrax treated?

What guidelines have been published for the treatment of cutaneous anthrax?

What are the CDC guidelines for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis (PEP)?

How is cutaneous anthrax treated?

How is systemic anthrax without meningitis treated?

How is anthrax meningitis treated?

What is included in prehospital care for anthrax?

What is included in emergency department (ED) care for anthrax?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with anthrax?

What is included in postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) against anthrax?

Which high-risk groups should be vaccinated against anthrax?

How is the anthrax vaccine administered for pre-exposure prophylaxis?

How is the anthrax vaccine administered for postexposure prophylaxis?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of anthrax?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines are used in the treatment of Anthrax?

Which medications in the drug class Antidotes, Other are used in the treatment of Anthrax?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Anthrax?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics, Other are used in the treatment of Anthrax?