Bartonellosis (Bartonella Infection) Follow-up

Updated: May 15, 2017
  • Author: Kassem A Hammoud, MD; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
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B bacilliformis and B quintana infections: Prevention is best achieved by avoiding the circumstances in which exposure to their arthropod vectors occurs. B bacilliformis transmission is limited to the Andes Mountains at elevations of 1000-3000 meters because of the habitat of the sand fly Phlebotomus, now called Lutzomyia. Outbreaks occur only in the Andes. B quintana is found worldwide and causes febrile outbreaks. Poor sanitation and lack of personal hygiene strongly correlate with transmission by the body louse Pediculus humanus.

B henselae infection: B henselae is found throughout the world in association with both domestic and feral cats. Prevention is achieved by avoiding interactions with cats that might result in scratches, bites, or licks, especially kittens, cats with fleas, and cats that are allowed outdoors.



Catscratch disease rarely results in neurologic sequelae. Adenopathy persists for 6-24 months in 20% of patients. After several months, the lesions of visceral organs calcify or resolve.

Trench fever is a nonlethal and self-limiting disease, although relapses and chronic bacteremic states are well known.

Bartonella endocarditis has caused fatalities and usually requires surgical repair. Of 22 cases reported by Raoult and colleagues in 1996, 19 patients underwent valvular surgery, and 6 patients died. [43]

Immunocompromised patients with bacillary angiomatosis or peliosis hepatis respond well to antibiotics. Relapse may occur.