Candidiasis Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 08, 2019
  • Author: Jose A Hidalgo, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is candidiasis?

What are the signs and symptoms of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis?

What are the signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC)?

Which physical findings suggest oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC)?

What are the types of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC)?

What are the symptoms of esophageal candidiasis?

What are symptoms of nonesophageal GI candidiasis?

What are the types of genitourinary tract candidiasis?

Which tests are performed in the workup of candidiasis?

What are the treatment options for candidiasis?

What is candidiasis and what is its prevalence?

What is the role of candidiasis in the incidence of nosocomial infections?

What are Candida and where are they found?

Which factors contribute to the virulence of Candida?

What are host defense mechanisms against Candida infection?

Which risk factors are associated with invasive or systemic candidiasis?

What is the prevalence of candidiasis in the US?

What is the global prevalence of candidiasis?

What is the mortality and morbidity of mucocutaneous candidiasis in patients with HIV infection?

What is the mortality and morbidity of candidemia and disseminated candidiasis?

How does the incidence of candidiasis vary between males and females?

How does the incidence of candidiasis vary among age groups?

Presentation

Which history and physical findings suggest Candida endophthalmitis?

What is the presentation of candidiasis?

What are the signs and symptoms of generalized cutaneous candidiasis?

What are the signs and symptoms of intertrigo caused by candidiasis?

What is the manifestation of metastatic skin lesions of disseminated candidiasis and candidemia?

What is the manifestation of candida folliculitis?

What is the manifestation of paronychia and onychomycosis caused by candidiasis?

What is chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis?

Which history is associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis?

Which physical findings suggest chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis?

Which history is associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC)?

Which physical findings suggest oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), and what are the types of OPC?

Which history and physical findings suggest esophageal candidiasis?

Which history findings are associated with nonesophageal GI candidiasis?

Which physical findings suggest nonesophageal GI candidiasis?

What is the prevalence of respiratory tract candidiasis?

Which history and physical findings suggest laryngeal candidiasis?

Which history and physical findings suggest Candida tracheobronchitis?

Which history and physical findings suggest Candida pneumonia?

Which history and physical findings suggest vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)?

Which history and physical findings suggest Candida balanitis?

Which history and physical findings suggest Candida cystitis?

Which history and physical findings suggest asymptomatic candiduria?

Which history and physical findings suggest ascending pyelonephritis caused by candidiasis?

What is the manifestation of fungal balls secondary to candidiasis?

Which history and physical findings suggest hepatosplenic candidiasis (chronic systemic candidiasis)?

What are the primary syndromes of systemic candidiasis?

Which history suggests candidemia?

Which physical findings suggest candidemia?

What are the causes of candidemia without invasive disease?

Which history and physical findings suggest disseminated candidiasis?

What are the forms of Candida endophthalmitis?

Which history and physical findings suggest renal candidiasis?

Which history suggests CNS infections due to Candida species?

Which physical findings suggest CNS infections due to Candida?

Which history and physical findings suggest candidal musculoskeletal infections?

Which history suggests Candida arthritis?

What is Candida osteomyelitis?

What is Candida costochondritis?

What is Candida myositis?

Which history and physical findings suggest Candida myocarditis-pericarditis?

Which history and physical findings suggest Candida peritonitis?

What are Candida splenic abscess and hypersplenism?

What is Candida cholecystitis?

Which Candida species cause diseases in humans?

DDX

What are the diagnostic considerations of candidiasis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Candidiasis?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of candidiasis?

Which blood tests for detecting Candida have been approved by the FDA for the workup of candidiasis?

Which lab studies are performed in the workup of mucocutaneous candidiasis?

Which lab studies are performed in the workup of candidemia and disseminated candidiasis?

Which lab studies are performed in the workup of cutaneous candidiasis?

Which lab studies are performed in the workup of genitourinary candidiasis?

Which lab studies are performed in the workup of respiratory tract candidiasis?

Which procedures are performed in the workup of GI candidiasis?

Which lab studies are performed in the workup of focal hepatosplenic candidiasis?

How are Candida species identified in the workup of candidiasis?

What is the role of antifungal susceptibility testing in the workup of candidiasis?

What is the role of nonculture Candida detection assays in the workup of candidiasis?

What is the efficacy of T2Candida in the diagnosis of candidiasis?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of candidiasis?

What is the role of chest radiography in the workup of candidiasis?

What is the role of esophagography or upper GI studies in the workup of candidiasis?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of candidiasis?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of candidiasis?

What is the role of echocardiography in the workup of candidiasis?

Which procedure may be performed in the workup of candidemia or disseminated candidiasis?

What is the role of bronchoscopy in the workup of candidiasis?

What is the role of endoscopy in the workup of candidiasis?

What is the role of echocardiography in the workup of candidiasis?

What are the expected histologic findings in candidiasis?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for candidiasis?

What are the IDSA recommendations for the treatment of candidiasis?

What is the role of fluconazole in the treatment of candidiasis?

What is the role of ketoconazole in the treatment of candidiasis?

What are the treatment options for cutaneous candidiasis?

What are the treatment options for oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC)?

What are the treatment options for candidiasis infections in HIV-positive patients?

What are the treatment options for Candida esophagitis?

What are the treatment options for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)?

What are the treatment options for asymptomatic candiduria?

What are the treatment options for Candida cystitis?

What are the treatment options for renal candidiasis?

What are the treatment options for candidemia in patients without neutropenia?

What are the treatment options for candidemia in patients with neutropenia?

What is the standard regimen of fluconazole for the treatment of candidemia?

Which echinocandins are used for the treatment of candidemia?

Besides echinocandins, what are other drug options for the treatment of candidemia?

Which medications are used for treating disseminated candidiasis with end organ infection?

What are the treatment options for chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis?

What are the treatment options for hepatosplenic candidiasis?

What are the treatment options for respiratory tract candidiasis?

What are the empirical treatment options for suspected invasive candidiasis?

What are the treatment options for disseminated candidiasis with end organ infection?

What is the first-line therapy for disseminated candidiasis with end organ infection?

What are the treatment options for antifungal resistant candidiasis?

What are the alternative antifungal regimens for candidiasis treatment?

What is the indication for surgical drainage procedures in candidiasis?

What is the treatment for prosthetic joints infected with Candida?

What is the treatment of sternal candida infections?

What is the treatment for splenic abscess in patients with candidiasis?

What is the treatment for endocarditis in patients with candidiasis?

What is the treatment for fungal endophthalmitis?

When is specialist consultation needed for the treatment of candidiasis?

Guidelines

What are the IDSA treatment guidelines for candidiasis?

Medications

When should antifungal therapy for systemic Candida infections be initiated?

Which classes of antifungals are used in the treatment of candidiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Allylamines are used in the treatment of Candidiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Topical azoles are used in the treatment of Candidiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Antimetabolite are used in the treatment of Candidiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Polyenes are used in the treatment of Candidiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Glucan synthesis inhibitors (echinocandins) are used in the treatment of Candidiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Azole Antifungals are used in the treatment of Candidiasis?

Follow-up

What follow-up outpatient care is needed for mucocutaneous candidiasis?

What monitoring is required for patients receiving amphotericin B for the treatment of candidemia and disseminated candidiasis?

How is candidiasis treated in an inpatient setting?

Which medications are indicated for inpatient and outpatient treatment of candidiasis?

What are indications for transfer of patients with candidiasis?

When is antifungal prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis indicated?

What are the indications for primary or secondary prevention of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) or vaginal candidiasis?

How is candidiasis prevented in patients with diabetes mellitus?

How is candidiasis prevented or deterred?

How is nosocomial candidemia prevented?

What are the possible complications of untreated candidiasis?

Which factors affect the prognosis of candidiasis?

What is the prognosis of mucocutaneous candidiasis?

What is the prognosis of systemic candidiasis?

Which factor improves the prognosis of candidemia and disseminated candidiasis?

What education should be given to patients with candidiasis?