Cardiobacterium Workup

Updated: Feb 29, 2016
  • Author: Kerry O Cleveland, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Workup

Laboratory Studies

Older blood culture systems did not support the growth of HACEK bacteria aerobically or anaerobically; blood cultures needed to be held for up to 2-3 weeks with blind subcultures. Newer blood culture systems support the growth of HACEK bacteria within 5 days. Despite this, some experts continue to recommend holding blood cultures for an extended period (up to 1 mo) when a diagnosis of Cardiobacterium endocarditis is considered.

In one study, anemia was present in 18 of 23 (78%) patients with C hominis endocarditis

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is usually elevated and may exceed 100 mm/h.

Urinalysis results may show evidence of glomerulonephritis, including hematuria and proteinuria.

Rheumatoid factor test results may be positive, and this finding is one of the minor criteria for endocarditis.

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Imaging Studies

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is considerably more sensitive than transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in helping detect valvular vegetations. TTE is usually performed first; if findings are positive, TEE is probably unnecessary.

Positron emission tomography has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, including cases due to Cardiobacterium infection. [9, 10]

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