Cat Scratch Disease (Cat Scratch Fever) Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Jun 07, 2022
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Consider all causes of subacute and chronic lymphadenopathy. However, infection with cytomegalovirus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, or Epstein-Barr virus usually is associated with lymphadenitis at more than one site. In patients with persistent skin papules and regional lymphadenopathy, consider leishmaniasis, Nocardiosis, and fungal infections.

Because the clinical manifestations of infection with Bartonella henselae are different in patients who are immunocompromised, an entirely different differential diagnosis is appropriate. Bartonella infection leads to vasculoproliferative lesions, namely bacillary angiomatosis (B henselae, Bartonella quintana) and peliosis (B henselae only). The differential diagnosis includes malignant neoplasms (eg, Kaposi sarcoma, angiosarcoma) and benign reactive conditions (eg, pyogenic granuloma, angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia).

Differential Diagnoses