Cat Scratch Disease (Cat Scratch Fever) Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 04, 2018
  • Author: Stephen J Nervi, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the systemic symptoms of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the symptoms of cat scratch disease (CSD) in immunocompromised patients?

How is cat scratch disease (CSD) differentiated from lymphadenopathy?

When was cat scratch disease (CSD) first described?

Who discovered cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is Foshay’s contribution to the understanding of the etiology of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the history of cat scratch disease (CSD) in the 1950s?

When was the spectrum of catscratch disease (CSD) first detailed?

What is the importance of molecular taxonomy in the understanding of the pathogenesis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the etiologic agent for cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the first successful isolation and culture of the cat scratch disease (CSD) organism?

What is the role of Rochalimaea henselae in the etiology of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is bacillary angiomatosis manifested in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the most common cause of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the pathophysiology of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of B henselae in the etiology of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of feline infection with Bartonella (B) henselae in the pathogenesis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of fleas in the pathogenesis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of familial factors in the transmission of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the prevalence of Bartonella (B) henselae among family members of patients with cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which organ systems are affected by cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How are the lymph nodes affected by cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the most common neurologic manifestation of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is neuroretinitis manifested in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the pulmonary manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How do vertebral osteomyelitis and splenic abscess manifest in patients with cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the usual cause of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the natural reservoir and vectors for transmission of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How does the transmission of Bartonella (B) henselae from cats to humans occur?

Why are kittens the main source of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Other than scratches, how is cat scratch disease (CSD) transmitted in humans?

What is known about familial outbreaks of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are rare causes of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the incidence of cat scratch disease (CSD) in the US?

In what regions of the US is the incidence of cat scratch disease (CSD) highest?

During what time of the year do most cat scratch disease (CSD) cases occur in the US?

What is the hospitalization rate for cat scratch disease (CSD)-in the US?

What is the global incidence of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

During what time of the year do the majority of cat scratch disease (CSD) cases occur?

Which phenotypes of Bartonella (B) henselae are pathogenic for cat scratch disease (CSD) globally?

How does the incidence of cat scratch disease (CSD) vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of cat scratch disease (CSD) vary by age?

What is the prognosis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the durations of lymphadenitis in cat scratch disease (CSD) resolve?

What is the course of cat scratch disease (CSD) in immunocompromised patients?

What is the included in the patient education information for cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Presentation

What is the most common presentation of catscratch disease (CSD) in patients seeking medical care?

Which history is characteristic of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the initial symptom of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How does lymphadenopathy develop in patients with cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the characteristics of lymphadenopathy in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are systemic symptoms of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the central nervous system (CNS) symptoms of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How was the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD) confirmed?

What are unusual presentations of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What differences have been noted between the presentation of typical cat scratch disease (CSD) and that of severe disease?

How are skin eruptions characterized in severe cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which finding is evidence of recurrent cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Where are inoculation papules of cat scratch disease (CSD) typically located?

How is rash characterized in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How are infected nodes characterized in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the most common locations for lymphadenopathy in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How frequently does suppuration occur in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is conjunctival cat scratch disease (CSD) manifested?

How frequently is fever manifested in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is a presentation of cat scratch disease (CSD) with fever?

What are symptoms of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is an unusual otolaryngologic presentation of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the less common symptoms of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are some atypical manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome (POS) in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How does Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome (POS) manifest in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome (POS) in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which central nervous system (CNS) findings suggest cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is encephalopathy manifested in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is encephalitis manifested in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is cat scratch disease (CSD) with CNS involvement diagnosed?

What is the disease progression of cat scratch disease (CSD) encephalitis?

How does transverse myelitis present in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How are the cranial or peripheral nerves involved in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is neuroretinitis manifested in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is the eye affected in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the recovery time from central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is hepatosplenic cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the physical findings in hepatosplenic cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is hepatosplenic cat scratch disease (CSD) diagnosed?

What are the treatment options for hepatosplenic cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is endocarditis manifested in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the treatment options for endocarditis in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Where does osteomyelitis manifest in patients with cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the roles of imaging studies in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is osteomyelitis presented in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the uncommon dermatologic manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How does cat scratch disease (CSD) manifest in immunocompromised patients?

How does bacillary angiomatosis manifest in immunocompromised patients with catscratch disease (CSD)?

How does bacillary peliosis manifest in immunocompromised patients with catscratch disease (CSD)?

DDX

How is cat scratch disease (CSD) differentiated from other causes of lymphadenopathy?

What should be included in the differential diagnoses of cat scratch disease (CSD) in immunocompromised patients?

What are the differential diagnoses for Cat Scratch Disease (Cat Scratch Fever)?

Workup

What is the diagnostic approach for cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the diagnostic approach for cat scratch disease (CSD) in immunocompromised patients?

What is the role of serologic testing in the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the efficacy of indirect fluorescence assay (IFA) testing for the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the efficacy of Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) testing for the diagnosis of catscratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of immunoglobulins testing in the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the prevalence of seropositivity in cats living with a human with cat scratch disease (CSD)?

When is lymph node biopsy indicated in the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How are Bartonella (B) species differentiated in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the histopathological findings characteristic of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the histopathological features for cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the limitations of Bartonella (B) culturing in the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of biopsy in the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of skin testing in the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are histologic characteristics of primary inoculation lesions in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which findings with Warthin-Starry stain are characteristics of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which histopathologic findings are characteristic of lymph nodes in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which diseases have histologic features similar to those of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is histopathologic exam of lymph nodes performed in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of Warthin-Starry staining in the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which findings suggest the bacteria in the lymph nodes is not viable in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the histologic findings characteristic of cat scratch disease (CSD) with hepatic involvement?

Treatment

What is the basis for treatment recommendation for cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the treatment options for mild or moderate cat scratch disease (CSD)?

When is lymph node aspiration indicated in the treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of antibiotics in the treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which antibiotics are effective for the treatment of severe cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of azithromycin in the treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the duration of antibiotic treatment for cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which antibiotics are used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis due to cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which antibiotics are less effective in the treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which complications of cat scratch disease (CSD) are treated with antibiotics?

What is the regimen for rifampin in the treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are possible adverse effects of fluoroquinolones for the treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are the possible adverse effects of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) for the treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What are possible adverse effects of IV gentamicin in the treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is suppuration treated in catscratch disease (CSD)?

How is recurrence of suppuration treated in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of surgical excision in the treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

When is inpatient treatment indicated for cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What monitoring is needed following treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How are neurologic complications of cat scratch disease (CSD) managed?

When is surgical biopsy indicated in the management of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

When is pet quarantine required in the deterrence of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the role of doxycycline in the prevention of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the natural history of feline infection and infectivity with cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is cat scratch disease (CSD) prevented?

What education should be given to children for prevention of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

When is emergent consultation needed in the management of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which specialist consultation are helpful in the management of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Medications

Which medications are used in the primary treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

What is the efficacy for antibiotics in the treatment of cat scratch disease (CSD)?

How is cat scratch disease (CSD) treated in immunocompromised patients?

What are possible adverse effects of antibiotic therapy for cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Cat Scratch Disease (Cat Scratch Fever)?