Cellulitis Questions & Answers

Updated: Jul 05, 2017
  • Author: Thomas E Herchline, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

Which imaging studies are suggested for cellulitis?

How is cellulitis treated?

What is cellulitis?

What are the signs and symptoms of cellulitis?

What workup or tests should be completed in cellulitis diagnosis?

When are aspiration, dissection, and biopsy suggested for cellulitis?

When is hospital admission suggested for cellulitis?

What is the pathophysiology of cellulitis?

What causes cellulitis?

What does the term cellulitis indicate?

How do streptococcal species relate to cellulitis?

What are the most common etiologies of cellulitis in injection drug users?

Which host factors predispose to cellulitis?

What are the most common causative organisms of cellulitis in infants and children?

What causes impetigo?

Which nontraditional organisms can cause cellulitis in immunocompromised patients?

How is malignant cellulitis caused by pneumococci recognized?

How do mycobacterial infections differ from cellulitis?

What causes bullous cellulitis in patients with cirrhosis?

What causes recurrent staphylococcal cellulitis?

Which hospital-acquired infections lead to cellulitis?

How does cellulitis affect varicella?

How common is MRSA as a cause of cellulitis?

Which pathogens cause cellulitis due to puncture wounds, lacerations, and bite wounds?

What is the prevalence of cellulitis?

What types of cellulitis are commonly found in specific age groups?

How often do patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), including cellulitis and abscess, seek medical care?

What is the prognosis of cellulitis?

What information should be provided to patients with cellulitis?

Presentation

What is the role of the patient’s medical history in determining cellulitis treatment?

During the medical history review, which findings might offer a clue to cellulitis etiology?

Which skin disorders should be asked about in a patient presenting with cellulitis?

Which comorbid conditions increase the risk of cellulitis?

Why is surgical history important when cellulitis is present?

Which physical findings suggest cellulitis and which indicate severe infection?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Cellulitis?

What conditions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cellulitis or in cases of treatment failure?

Workup

When is a workup for cellulitis unnecessary?

When is a blood culture or bloodwork necessary in the workup of cellulitis?

What are the IDSA guidelines for the workup for cellulitis?

When should hospitalization of a patient with cellulitis be considered?

Which lab tests should be considered in patients presenting with moderate to severe cellulitis and/or systemic symptoms?

What role does ultrasonography play in the workup of cellulitis?

What role does CT imaging and MRI play in the workup of cellulitis?

What are the roles of aspiration, dissection, and biopsy in the workup of cellulitis?

What is the role of debridement in the workup and treatment of cellulitis, and what are the histologic findings?

Treatment

How is severe cellulitis treated?

How is cellulitis treated?

How effective are antibiotics in the treatment of MRSA cellulitis?

When should cellulitis prompt consultation with a specialist?

How is cellulitis without draining wounds or abscess treated?

How is recurrent cellulitis treated?

How is cellulitis associated with bite wounds treated?

How is odontogenic cellulitis treated?

How is cellulitis resulting from lacerations and puncture wounds sustained in an aquatic environment treated?

How is CA-MRSA cellulitis treated?

When can cellulitis be treated on an outpatient basis?

What is the treatment duration of cellulitis for outpatients?

When should IV antibiotic therapy be considered for cellulitis and how is the antibiotic selected?

When should surgical consultation and exam be considered for cases of cellulitis?

What are the causes and treatments for impetigo in adults?

What are the IDSA guidelines on the treatment of impetigo in children?

Which antibiotics are recommended to treat methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in children?

Which antibiotics are recommended to treat MRSA skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs)?

Which antibiotics are recommended to treat MRSA skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in children?

Which antibiotics are recommended to treat methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs)?

How is erysipelas treated?

What are the causes of refractory erysipelas?

When is an aggressive evaluation and management strategy needed in patients with erysipelas?

Which antibiotics are recommended in the treatment of adult Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections?

Which antibiotics are recommended in the treatment of severe streptococcal necrotizing infections in adults?

What are the common causes of monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis?

When is surgical evaluation and management necessary in treating necrotizing fasciitis and gas gangrene?

Which antibiotics are recommended in the treatment of mixed necrotizing infections?

Which antibiotics are recommended in the treatment of clostridial necrotizing infections?

How should animal bites be treated to prevent infection?

How should human bites be treated to prevent infection?

How should surgical site infections be treated?

Which organisms cause skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in immunocompromised patients?

How are hospital-acquired skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) treated in immunocompromised patients?

How are skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) treated in patients with cell-mediated immunodeficiency?

Guidelines

What are the IDSA treatment guidelines for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), including cellulitis?

Which oral antibiotics are indicated in the treatment of mild nonpurulent cellulitis?

Which IV antibiotics are indicated in the treatment of moderate nonpurulent cellulitis?

Which antibiotics are indicated in the treatment of severe nonpurulent cellulitis?

What are the treatment guidelines for mild purulent cellulitis?

Which oral antibiotics are recommended in the treatment of moderate purulent cellulitis?

Which IV antibiotics are recommended in the treatment of severe purulent cellulitis?

Which antibiotics do the guidelines recommend for the treatment of staphylococcal and streptococcal impetigo?

What antibiotics do the IDSA guidelines recommend for the treatment of methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA)?

Which antibiotics do the IDSA guidelines recommend for the treatment of MRSA skin and soft tissue infections (STTIs)?

Medications

What are the goals of antimicrobial therapy for cellulitis?

What is the role of beta-lactam agents in the treatment of cellulitis?

How should antimicrobials be chosen for common pathogens in patients with cellulitis?

How are uncommon organisms treated in cellulitis?

How are Penicillins, Natural used in the treatment of Cellulitis?

How are Penicillins, Amino used in the treatment of Cellulitis?

How are Penicillins, Penicillinase Resistant used in the treatment of Cellulitis?

How are Penicillins, Extended-Spectrum used in the treatment of Cellulitis?

How are Cephalosporins, Other used in the treatment of Cellulitis?

How are Macrolides used in the treatment of Cellulitis?

How are Carbapenems used in the treatment of Cellulitis?

How are Fluoroquinolones used in the treatment of Cellulitis?

How are Antibiotics, Other used in the treatment of Cellulitis?

How are Tetracyclines used in the treatment of Cellulitis?

How are Antifungal Agents used in the treatment of Cellulitis?