Chlamydia (Chlamydial Genitourinary Infections) Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 25, 2018
  • Author: Shahab Qureshi, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are chlamydiae?

How are the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis (C trachomatis) differentiated?

Which medical conditions are caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C trachomatis)?

How are Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C pneumoniae) and C psittaci transmitted?

What percentage of sexually active females are screened for chlamydia in the US?

What are the USPSTF recommendations for routine chlamydia screening?

What is the pathophysiologic mechanism of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the life cycle of chlamydiae?

How is chlamydia transmitted?

What is the most common clinical presentation of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the most common coinfection with chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What are the signs and symptoms of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

How are chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia) transmitted and what are specific risk factors for infection?

What is the prevalence of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia) in the US?

What is the global incidence of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

How does the incidence of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia) vary by age, sex, and race?

What is the prognosis of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the morbidity and mortality of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What education should be provided to patients with chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

Presentation

How are chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia) diagnosed?

What are the USPSTF recommendations for routine screening of women for chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the prevalence of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia) in men?

What are the signs and symptoms of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What history should be noted in patients with suspected chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia)?

What should be noted in the history of females with suspected chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia)?

What may be noted in the history of males with suspected chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia)?

What should be noted in the history of newborns with suspected chlamydial infection (chlamydia)?

What should be noted in the history of mothers diagnosed with or suspected of having chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia) during pregnancy?

What are the signs of chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia) in women?

What are the signs of chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia) in men?

What are the signs of chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia) in newborns?

What are signs of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia)?

What are the possible sequelae of chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia) in women?

What is the risk of ectopic pregnancy in women who have had pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) caused by chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia)?

What is Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (perihepatitis) and how is it associated with chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

Which disorders are women with chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia) at an increased risk of acquiring?

How is chlamydial pneumonia or chlamydial conjunctivitis transmitted to infants?

What is Reiter syndrome and how is chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia) a risk factor?

What are potential complications of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

DDX

What conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

Workup

Which patients should be evaluated for chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

Which specimens should be obtained and assayed in the workup of Chlamydia trachomatis (C trachomatis) infection?

Which lab tests should be performed in infants with suspected chlamydial pneumonia?

Which lab tests should be performed in infants with suspected chlamydial conjunctivitis?

When is treatment indicated in infants of mothers with untreated chlamydial infection (chlamydia) during pregnancy?

What is the role of a CBC in the workup of chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia)?

When is a pregnancy test indicated in women with suspected chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia)?

What is the role of cytology in the workup of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the role of cell culture in the workup of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

How should specimens be obtained for molecular testing in the workup of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the role of direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) testing in the workup of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the role of ELISA in the workup of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

How is chlamydial DNA detected in the workup of chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia)?

What is the role of PCR testing in the workup of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the role of nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) in the workup of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

Which nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are used in the workup of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What are the CDC recommendations for the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in the diagnosis of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What are the disadvantages of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in the diagnosis of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

Which serologic findings suggest chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the prevalence of antichlamydia immunoglobulin M (IgM) in sexually active adults and what does it suggest?

What is the efficacy of serologic studies for the diagnosis of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the role of a chest radiograph in infants with suspected chlamydial pneumonia?

What are the USPSTF recommendations for the screening of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What screening test may be used for chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia) in asymptomatic males?

Treatment

What is the key to successful management of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the disease progression of untreated chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia)?

Which condition is often misdiagnosed as chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

Which patients are at high risk for noncompliance with treatment for chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

When is hospitalization indicated in the treatment of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

When is antibiotic therapy for chlamydial genitourinary infection (chlamydia) initiated?

When are specialist consultations indicated in the management of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What are two categories of genital Chlamydia trachomatis (C trachomatis) infection?

What are the treatment options for chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is standard therapy for uncomplicated genital tract chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the role of azithromycin in the treatment of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the treatment of lower genital infections caused by Chlamydia?

What are the disadvantages of DNA and antigen detection kits for the diagnosis of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What is the sequelae of inadequately treated pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) caused by chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What should be in included in the management of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in patients with chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What are the parenteral regimens for the inpatient treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in patients with chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What are outpatient regimens for treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in patients with chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What are the treatment options and duration for chlamydial conjunctivitis and chlamydial pneumonia?

What are the CDC treatment guidelines for gonococcal infection and chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What are the CDC guidelines for treatment of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia) during pregnancy?

What is included in posttherapy care for chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

How are chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia) prevented?

What are the ACOG guidelines on partner therapy for chlamydial and gonorrheal sexually transmitted diseases?

What monitoring is needed during and after treatment for chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

Guidelines

What are the WHO guidelines on treatment of uncomplicated chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

What are the WHO recommendations for treating anorectal chlamydial infection?

What are the WHO recommendations in the treatment of chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia) in pregnancy?

What are the WHO recommendations in the treatment of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)?

Medications

What are the goals of pharmacotherapy for chlamydial genitourinary infections (chlamydia)?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics, Other are used in the treatment of Chlamydia (Chlamydial Genitourinary Infections)?