Enterobacter Infections Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 05, 2018
  • Author: Susan L Fraser, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are Enterobacter infections?

How are Enterobacter infections clinically differentiated from other bacterial infections?

What are the signs of Enterobacter bacteremia?

What are the physical findings characteristic of Enterobacter infections of the lower respiratory tract?

What is the presentation of pulmonary consolidation in Enterobacter infections?

Which lab studies are performed in the evaluation of Enterobacter infections?

What is included in the microbiologic diagnosis and assessment of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of imaging studies in the evaluation of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of positron emission tomography (PET) scanning in the evaluation of Enterobacter infections?

What are role of antibiotics in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

What are Enterobacter infections?

What are the risk factors for Enterobacter infections?

What are the initial steps in the management of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of Enterobacter infection in sepsis?

Which Enterobacter infections are most common?

What is the source of Enterobacter infections?

How do Enterobacter infection become resistant to cephalosporins?

What is the evidence for Enterobacter infections as a significant source of morbidity among hospitalized patients?

What is the prevalence of Enterobacter-caused nosocomial infections?

What is the prevalence of Enterobacter-caused healthcare-associated infections (HAI)?

What is the prevalence of Enterobacter pneumonia?

What is the prevalence of Enterobacter surgical-site infections?

What is the rate of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins for Enterobacter infections?

What is the global prevalence of Enterobacter infections?

What are the morbidities associated with Enterobacter infections?

Which factor increases the risk of mortality from Enterobacter bacteremia?

What are the mortality risk factors for Enterobacter infections?

What are the mortality rates for Enterobacter infections?

Which type of Enterobacter infection has the highest mortality rate?

What is the mortality rate for Enterobacter bacteremia?

What are the mortality rates for Enterobacter pneumonia?

What is the mortality rate for Enterobacter endocarditis?

What are the racial predilections for Enterobacter infections?

How does the incidence of Enterobacter infections vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of Enterobacter infections vary by age?

Presentation

What is the clinical presentation of Enterobacter infections?

Which species are the most common cause of Enterobacter bacteremia?

What are the symptoms of Enterobacter bacteremia?

What are the clinical presentations for lower respiratory tract Enterobacter infections?

What are the clinical presentations for Enterobacter wound infections?

Which history is characteristic of Enterobacter endocarditis?

What are the signs and symptoms of Enterobacter urinary tract infection (UTI)?

What are the clinical presentations of intra-abdominal Enterobacter infections?

How frequently is meningitis caused by Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of Enterobacter species in ophthalmic infections?

What is the role of Enterobacter infections in septic arthritis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of Enterobacter bacteremia?

What are the physical findings characteristic of Enterobacter infections in the lower respiratory tract?

What are Enterobacter infections?

What is the microscopic appearance of Enterobacter infections?

How do Enterobacter species appear in MacConkey agar?

What are the most common Enterobacter species?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Enterobacter Infections?

Workup

What is the role of culture in the evaluation of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of direct gram staining in the diagnosis of Enterobacter infections?

In which patient group is a finding of bacteremia without inflammation likely in the workup of Enterobacter infections?

How long does it take to isolate Enterobacter infection in the lab?

How are Enterobacter infections diagnosed?

Why is routine Gram staining of sputum mandatory for the diagnosis of Enterobacter infections?

What are the characteristics of a good-quality specimen for the diagnosis of Enterobacter infections?

What is the result of a poor-quality specimen for the diagnosis of Enterobacter infections?

How does upper respiratory secretion contamination occur in the evaluation of Enterobacter infections?

How should fluid samples be handled in the diagnosis of Enterobacter infections?

How should ophthalmic specimens be handled in the diagnosis of Enterobacter infections?

What is the importance of IV and intra-arterial catheters in the evaluation of Enterobacter infections?

How is the choice made for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for the management of Enterobacter infections?

Which penicillins should be included in the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Enterobacter infections?

Which cephalosporins should be included in the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Enterobacter infections?

In addition to penicillins and cephalosporins, which agents should be included in antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Enterobacter infections?

What is the most popular method of testing antimicrobial susceptibility in Enterobacter infections?

What are minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Enterobacter infections?

How are the results of antibiotic sensitivity testing interpreted in Enterobacter infections?

What are the limitations of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Enterobacter infections?

Which lab studies are performed in the evaluation of Enterobacter infections?

How are imaging studies chosen for the evaluation of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of imaging in the diagnosis of Enterobacter infections in the chest?

What is the role of imaging in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of imaging in the diagnosis of intravascular Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of imaging in the diagnosis of Enterobacter UTIs?

What is the role of imaging in the diagnosis of Enterobacter infections in the CNS or eye?

What is the role of imaging in the diagnosis of bone and joint Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of positron emission tomography (PET) scanning in the diagnosis of Enterobacter infections?

Which procedures are used for the diagnosis of specific Enterobacter infections?

Which histologic findings suggest Enterobacter infections?

Treatment

What is the role of antimicrobial therapy in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

Which classes of antibiotics are used to manage Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of tigecycline in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

What is the resistance of Enterobacter infections to antibiotics?

What is the role of cephalosporinases in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of extended-spectrum penicillins in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of fourth generation cephalosporins in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of carbapenems in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

What are the guidelines for presumptive identification and confirmation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) for the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

What are the most reliable beta-lactam drugs for the treatment of severe Enterobacter infections?

Which Enterobacter infections have shown resistance to carbapenems?

What is the efficacy of meropenem/vaborbactam for the treatment of Enterobacter UTI infections?

What is the role of hyperproduction of AmpC beta-lactamases in carbapenems-resistant Enterobacter infections?

How do metallo-beta-lactamases affect the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of aminoglycosides in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of quinolones and TMP-SMZ in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of colistin and polymyxin B in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

Which surgical options are indicated for the treatment of Enterobacter endocarditis?

Why are multiple subspecialist consultations needed in the management of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of an infectious diseases specialist in the management of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of an intensive care specialist in the management of Enterobacter infections?

Consultation with which medial subspecialist may be helpful in the management of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of surgical consultation in the management of Enterobacter infections?

Which specialists should be consulted in the management of Enterobacter infections in infants and children?

What is the role of a radiology consultation in the management of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of a microbiologist in the management of Enterobacter infections?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for Enterobacter infections?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Enterobacter Infections?

Follow-up

What medications may be used to treat improving Enterobacter infections?

What are the outpatient medications used in the treatment of Enterobacter infections?

How can the spread of Enterobacter infections be prevented in a hospital setting?

What measures should be taken by health care workers to prevent the spread of Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of prior antibiotic administration in secondary Enterobacter infections?

What is the role of education programs in the prevention of Enterobacter infections?

What are the guidelines for isolation and prevention of nosocomial Enterobacter infections?

What are the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for preventing the spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)?

What is the prognosis of Enterobacter infections?