Enterococcal Infections Questions & Answers

Updated: Jul 30, 2018
  • Author: Susan L Fraser, MD; Chief Editor: John L Brusch, MD, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are enterococci?

Which enterococcal species are most prevalent in humans?

What is the prevalence of drug-resistant enterococcal strains?

Which antibiotics are effective against resistant enterococcal strains?

What is the role of enterococci in the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S aureus (VRSA)?

Which infections are commonly caused by enterococci?

How are vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) transmitted?

What are the risk factors for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) colonization?

What role do biofilms play in the pathophysiology of enterococcal infection?

How prevalent are nosocomial enterococcal infections in the US?

What is the role of third-generation cephalosporins in the increased prevalence of enterococcal infections?

What is the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection in the US?

What is the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection in Europe?

What are the morbidity and mortality rates of enterococcal infections?

How does the prevalence of enterococcal infections vary between males and females?

How does the prevalence of enterococcal infections vary among age groups?

What is the mortality rare for conditions caused by enterococcal infections?

Where can patients learn more about vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)?

Presentation

What are the most common types of enterococcal infections?

What are the sources of enterococcal bacteremia?

Which enterococci cause endocarditis and what are the risk factors?

Which GI and genitourinary infections are caused by enterococci?

What are less-common manifestations of enterococcal infections?

Which physical findings suggest enterococcal infection?

What are the potential complications of enterococcal infections?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Enterococcal Infections?

Workup

What is the role of lab tests in the diagnosis of enterococcal infections?

What is the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of enterococcal infections?

What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of enterococcal infections?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of enterococcal infections?

Which blood and urine tests are used in the diagnosis of enterococcal infections?

Which surgical procedures are used in the treatment of enterococcal infections?

Treatment

What drugs are used for combination therapy in enterococcal infections?

What are the treatment options for enterococcal infections?

Which drugs are used for monotherapy in enterococcal infections?

What is the efficacy of combination beta-lactam antibiotics with daptomycin for the treatment of enterococcal infections?

When is vancomycin indicated for treatment of enterococcal infections?

What are the treatment options for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infections?

When is combination quinupristin-dalfopristin used to treat enterococcal infections?

When is linezolid used to treat enterococcal infections?

When is daptomycin used to treat enterococcal infections?

When is tigecycline used to treat enterococcal infections?

When is teicoplanin used to treat enterococcal infections?

When is telavancin used to treat enterococcal infections?

When is oritavancin used to treat enterococcal infections?

When is tedizolid used to treat enterococcal infections?

When is surgery indicated for enterococcal infections?

Which specialist consultations are needed in the treatment of enterococcal infections?

What is the role of probiotic therapy in enterococcal infections?

How is enterococcal endocarditis prevented?

What are the CDC guidelines for preventing and controlling the spread of VRE?

What are the CDC recommendations for prevention of person-to-person transmission of VRE?

What restrictions should be placed on the use of vancomycin for prevention of VRE?

What antibiotic restrictions should be followed when treating enterococcal infections?

What environmental measures can reduce the risk of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) transmission?

What monitoring is needed following treatment of enterococcal infections?

When is transfer required for treatment of enterococcal infections?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment in the treatment of enterococcal infections?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Enterococcal Infections?