Gonorrhea Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 07, 2018
  • Author: Brian Wong, MD; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is gonorrhea?

What are the signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in females?

What are the symptoms of gonorrhea that has progressed to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What are the signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in males?

What is the classic presentation of disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI)?

What are symptoms of gonococcal conjunctivitis in neonates?

Which physical findings suggest gonorrhea in females?

Which physical findings suggest gonorrhea in males?

How is gonorrhea diagnosed?

How should cultures be obtained for the diagnosis of disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI)?

What are the treatment options for gonorrhea?

What is gonorrhea?

What is the progression of gonorrhea in females?

What are the common routes of transmission for gonococcal infections?

How is gonorrhea infection transmitted in pediatric populations?

What is gonococcemia and how is it defined?

Which factors increase the risk of gonorrhea infection?

What is the pathophysiology of gonorrhea?

What is the pathophysiology of disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI)?

What causes gonorrhea?

What causes sexually-transmitted gonorrhea?

What causes gonococcal infection in neonates and children?

What is autoinoculation of gonorrhea infection?

What are the risk factors for gonorrhea infection?

What is the incidence of gonorrhea in the US?

What is the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea in the US?

What is the global incidence of gonorrhea?

What is the global prevalence of anti-biotic-resistant gonorrhea?

What are the racial predilections of gonorrhea?

How does the incidence of gonorrhea vary by sex?

Which age groups are at highest risk for gonorrhea infection?

What is the prognosis of gonorrhea?

What are complications of gonorrhea in males?

What are complications of gonorrhea in females?

What is the prognosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) due to gonorrhea?

What is the prognosis of epididymitis and orchitis due to gonorrhea?

In which patient group is gonorrhea a common cause of arthritis?

What is the prevalence of endocarditis in gonorrhea?

What are serious complications of gonococcal infections?

What should be included in patient education about gonorrhea?

How effective is abstinence education in the prevention of gonorrhea?

What are the other risks of unprotected sex that should be included in patient education about gonorrhea?

Presentation

What should be the focus of the history for patients with suspected gonorrhea?

What are the signs and symptoms of gonorrhea infection in females?

What are the signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in males?

What are the extragenital manifestations of gonorrhea?

What are the signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in neonates?

What are the signs and symptoms of disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI)?

What should be included in the physical exam for gonorrhea?

Which physical findings are characteristic of gonorrhea in neonates?

Which physical findings are characteristic of gonorrhea in females?

Which physical findings are characteristic of gonorrhea in male?

What are the rectal symptoms of gonorrhea?

What are the ocular and periocular symptoms of gonorrhea?

Which physical findings are characteristic of disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI)?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses for gonorrhea in females?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnosis of disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI)?

How is gonococcal arthritis differentiated from reactive arthritis?

How are nongonococcal and gonococcal septic arthritis differentiated?

How is rheumatic fever differentiated from gonococcal endocarditis?

How is syphilis differentiated from gonorrhea?

Which conditions with arthritis and skin lesions are included in the differential diagnoses of gonorrhea?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of gonorrhea?

Workup

What are the CDC guidelines for gonorrhea screening?

How is N gonorrhoeae identified for the diagnosis of gonorrhea?

Which complete blood count (CBC) count suggests gonorrhea?

Which erythrocyte sedimentation rate suggests gonorrhea?

Which serologic tests are indicated in the workup of gonorrhea?

When is echocardiography indicated in the workup of gonorrhea?

What is included in the workup for suspected disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI)?

Which other STDs should be screened for during the evaluation of gonorrhea?

What is the role of gram stain smear in the diagnosis of gonorrhea in males?

What is the role of gram stain smear in the diagnosis of gonorrhea in females?

What is the role of gram stains in the emergency department (ED) evaluation of gonorrhea?

What is the criterion standard for diagnosis of gonorrhea?

What is the sensitivity of a single culture for the diagnosis of gonorrhea?

How are culture specimens collected for diagnosis of gonorrhea?

Which media are used for cultures of the conjunctiva in the workup of gonorrhea?

How are culture specimens collected for diagnosis of disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI)?

When are blood cultures indicated in the workup of gonorrhea?

What is the role of plain radiography in the workup of gonorrhea?

What is the role of ultrasonography or CT scanning in the workup of gonorrhea?

What is the role of nucleic acid amplification tests in the workup of gonorrhea?

What is the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligand chain reaction (LCR) in the workup of gonorrhea?

When is nucleic acid probe signal amplification (NAPSA) indicated in the workup of gonorrhea?

When is antibody-antigen testing indicated in the workup of gonorrhea?

What is the role for laparoscopy in the workup of gonorrhea?

What is the role of culdocentesis in the workup of gonorrhea?

What is the role of arthrocentesis in the workup of gonorrhea?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the workup of gonorrhea?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of gonorrhea?

What are the US Preventive Task Force (USPTF) recommendations for gonorrhea screening in males?

What are the US Preventive Task Force (USPTF) recommendations for gonorrhea screening in females?

What are the CDC recommendations for gonorrhea screening at extragenital sites?

Treatment

What are prevention considerations when treating a patient with gonorrhea?

When is inpatient treatment of gonorrhea indicated?

When is surgical intervention indicated in the treatment of gonorrhea?

What are pharmacologic treatment options for gonorrhea?

What is the first-line pharmacologic treatment for uncomplicated gonococcal infection?

What are the CDC guidelines for pharmacologic treatment of gonorrhea?

What are investigational treatments for gonorrhea?

Which drugs are not primary treatment options for gonorrhea?

What are the pharmacologic treatment options for gonococcal arthritis?

What are the pharmacologic treatment options for gonococcal conjunctivitis?

What are the pharmacologic treatment options for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) due to gonorrhea?

What is the pharmacologic treatment for gonococcal epididymitis?

What is the pharmacologic treatment for disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI)?

How are gonococcal meningitis and endocarditis treated?

Which specialist consultations are helpful in the treatment of gonorrhea?

What is included in monitoring following treatment for gonorrhea?

How is gonorrhea prevented?

What are the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for gonorrhea screening?

When is gonorrhea prophylaxis indicated for neonates?

What progress has been made in the development of a vaccine against gonococcal?

How is gonorrhea treated in patients with comorbid HIV infection?

Guidelines

What are the WHO treatment guidelines for genital and anorectal gonorrhea?

What are the WHO treatment guidelines for pharyngeal gonococcal infections?

What are the WHO guidelines for retreatment of gonorrhea after treatment failure?

What are the WHO treatment guidelines for gonococcal conjunctivitis in neonates?

What are the CDC treatment guidelines for gonorrhea?

Medications

What actions help ensure optimal treatment outcomes for patients with gonorrhea?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics, Other are used in the treatment of Gonorrhea?