Hypercalciuria Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 23, 2019
  • Author: Stephen W Leslie, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is included in a simplified workup of hypercalciuria?

What is hypercalciuria?

What is the morbidity associated with hypercalciuria?

What are the signs and symptoms of hypercalciuria?

How is hypercalciuria diagnosed?

What is included in the traditional workup of hypercalciuria?

What is included in the dietary treatment of hypercalciuria?

Which medications are used in the treatment of hypercalciuria?

How prevalent is hypercalciuria in calcium kidney stone disease?

How is hypercalciuria classified?

What are the primary mechanisms of elevated urinary calcium in hypercalciuria?

How is hypercalciuria defined?

How are the optimal levels of urinary calcium determined?

What are the most common types of hypercalciuria?

What is absorptive hypercalciuria?

What is renal leak hypercalciuria?

What is resorptive hypercalciuria?

What is the pathophysiology of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of intestinal adaptation in the pathophysiology of hypercalciuria?

What causes hypercalciuria?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of obesity in the etiology of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of pregnancy in the etiology of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of calcium supplementation in the etiology of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of vitamin D in the etiology of hypercalciuria?

What is the prevalence of hypercalciuria in the US?

What is the global prevalence of hypercalciuria?

What are the racial predilections of hypercalciuria?

What are the sexual predilections of hypercalciuria?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of hypercalciuria?

What is the prognosis of hypercalciuria?

How does bone-density loss effect the prognosis of hypercalciuria?

What is included in patient education about hypercalciuria?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of hypercalciuria?

Which medication history findings are characteristic of hypercalciuria?

Which dietary history findings are characteristic of hypercalciuria?

Which family history findings are characteristic of hypercalciuria?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of hypercalciuria in children?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of hypercalciuria?

What are the differential diagnoses for Hypercalciuria?

Workup

What are the differing approaches to the evaluation of hypercalciuria?

What is the approach to evaluation of hypercalciuria in children?

How are absorptive hypercalciuria types I and II differentiated?

How is absorptive hypercalciuria differentiated from renal leak hypercalciuria?

What is the role of a thiazide challenge in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the traditional workup for hypercalciuria?

What is the role of a calcium loading test in the traditional workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the simplified workup for hypercalciuria?

What are the advantages of the simplified workup for hypercalciuria?

What are the steps in the simplified workup for hypercalciuria?

What is the role of urinalysis in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of urinary calcium, creatinine and uric acid testing in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of urinary calcium/osmolality ratio in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of urine electrolyte testing in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of a 24-hour urinary calcium test in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What are the advantages of a calcium-loading test for the diagnosis of hypercalciuria?

How is a fasting sample obtained during a calcium-loading test for hypercalciuria?

How is the pot-calcium load sample obtained during a calcium-loading test for hypercalciuria?

When is the calcium/creatinine ratio measured during a calcium-loading test for hypercalciuria?

How is the calcium-loading test interpreted in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of serum studies in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of dietary studies in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of dietary studies in the workup of hypercalciuria in children?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of radiography in the workup of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of IVP in the workup of hypercalciuria?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of hypercalciuria?

Treatment

How is hypercalciuria treated?

What is the role of vitamin D in the treatment of hypercalciuria?

How is absorptive hypercalciuria type I treated?

How is absorptive hypercalciuria type II treated?

How is absorptive hypercalciuria type III treated?

What are the dietary recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What are the calcium intake recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What are the calcium intake recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What are the sodium intake recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria in children?

What are the potassium intake recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What are the protein intake recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What are the fiber intake recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What are the alcohol intake recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What are the caffeine intake recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What are the fluid intake recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What are the citrus intake recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What are the oxalate intake recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What are the carbohydrate intake recommendations for the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of a ketogenic diet in the treatment of hypercalciuria?

When are medications indicated in the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of hypercalciuria in children?

What is the role of thiazides in the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of orthophosphate therapy in the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of bisphosphonates in the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of sodium cellulose phosphate (Calcibind) in the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of dipyridamole (Persantine) in the treatment of hypercalciuria?

What is the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the treatment of hypercalciuria?

How is renal leak hypercalciuria treated?

How are resorptive hypercalciuria and hyperparathyroidism treated?

What is the role of cinacalcet (Sensipar) in the treatment of resorptive hypercalciuria and hyperparathyroidism?

What is the role of vitamin D in the treatment of resorptive hypercalciuria and hyperparathyroidism?

How are osteoporosis and osteopenia treated in patients with hypercalciuria?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with hypercalciuria?

How is hypercalciuria prevented?

What is the role of osteocalcin monitoring in the prevention of hypercalciuria?

What is included in long-term monitoring of hypercalciuria?

What is included in long-term monitoring of hypercalciuria in children?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of hypercalciuria?

Which medications in the drug class Estrogen Derivatives are used in the treatment of Hypercalciuria?

Which medications in the drug class Bisphosphonates are used in the treatment of Hypercalciuria?

Which medications in the drug class Urinary Alkalinizing Agents are used in the treatment of Hypercalciuria?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics, Thiazide are used in the treatment of Hypercalciuria?