Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 05, 2019
  • Author: Peter A Gearhart, MD; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What is human papillomavirus (HPV)?

Which medical conditions are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How is human papillomavirus (HPV) diagnosed?

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

When is a biopsy indicated for the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which histologic findings suggest human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which medications used in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the primary surgical treatments of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are alternative surgical procedures for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of vaccination for the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which areas of human papillomavirus (HPV) disease infection require further research?

What is human papillomavirus (HPV)?

How are mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections classified?

What are the clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections?

What are the different types of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

How does human papillomavirus (HPV) infection result in malignancy?

What type of virus is human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What are characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What are the anatomic predilections for human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What is the pathogenesis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How does the human papillomavirus (HPV) replicate?

What is the process of replication for human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What is the expression of viral genes in human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What is the pathophysiology of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What is the role of koilocytosis in the pathophysiology of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

How does the genetic make-up vary among the viral genotypes of papillomavirus (HPV)?

How are human papillomavirus (HPV) typed?

What are the etiologic characteristics of human papillomaviruses (HPVs)?

Which diseases are caused by human papillomaviruses (HPVs)?

Which patients are at higher risk for malignant transformation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the etiologic relationship between sexual activity and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the etiologic relationship between tobacco smoking and human papillomavirus (HPV)-caused malignancy?

What is the etiologic relationship between oral contraceptive use and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related malignancy?

What is the etiologic relationship between chewing betel quid and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related malignancy?

What is the etiologic relationship between ultraviolet and x-ray irradiation and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related malignancy?

What is the reporting system for human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in the US?

What is the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the US?

Which population group has the highest rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the US?

What is the incidence of genital warts the US?

What are the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence?

What are the trends in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection according to the National Disease and Therapeutic Index in the US?

Which studies in the US report the lowest and highest prevalences of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the prevalence of condylomata in the US?

How prevalent is papillomavirus (HPV) infection in cervical cancer in the US?

What percentage of cancers are caused by human papillomaviruses (HPVs)?

What is the global incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the most common cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in developing countries?

What is the global prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in women with normal cervical cytology?

What is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in developing nations?

How does the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection vary by age?

What is the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection stratified by age in US females?

Which population group has the highest rates of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How does the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vary between women older than 30 years and younger than 30 years?

Why is the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) higher in younger women?

How is genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection transmitted from mothers to infants?

What are the incubation and latency periods for human papillomavirus (HPV) in infants?

Which population groups are at highest risk for nongenital warts due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

When does epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) develop from human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How does the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infectionvary by sex?

What are the racial predilections for human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What is the prognosis of papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the disease progression of warts due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the vulva?

What is the histologic evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection on a cervical Pap smear?

What are the risk factors for anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which factors increase the risk of persistent disease due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the risk factors for anal cancer due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in males?

What are the risk factors for epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the progression of disease in epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the prevalence of comorbid sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in patients with genital warts?

What is included in patient education information about genital warts and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What measures may reduce the risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women?

How is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection prevented?

What is the benefit of evaluating sex partners of patients with genital warts due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Presentation

What determines the clinical presentation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the manifestations of genital infection due to human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What are condylomata acuminata located in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How are genital warts characterized in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which lesions are most common in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the cervix?

What is the presentation of giant condyloma in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

When do genital warts due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection become clinically apparent?

What are the signs and symptoms of condylomata acuminata in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How are papillomavirus (HPV) cervical infections usually diagnosed?

What are the signs and symptoms of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the signs and symptoms of anal cancer in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the presentation of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the characteristics of common cutaneous warts (verruca vulgaris) in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the signs and symptoms of palmoplantar warts in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the presentation of warts in meat and fish handlers with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How are flat warts characterized in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How is Bowenoid papulosis characterized in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the process of malignant conversion of skin lesions in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the signs and symptoms of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which factor determines the physical findings of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which physical findings are typical of condylomata in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the physical findings of subclinical condyloma in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the possible complications of warts in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the complications of human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

What is the disease progression of condylomata acuminata in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of genital warts due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of Bowenoid papulosis due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the differential diagnoses for Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?

Workup

How is human papillomavirus (HPV) diagnosed?

What is the role of DNA testing in the evaluation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of lab testing in the evaluation of condylomata acuminata?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections?

What is the role of histology in the evaluation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO)/ American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) guidelines on human papillomavirus (HPV) screening and management?

What is the role of cytologic testing in the evaluation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of cervical metaplasia in the of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of Pap smear in the evaluation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the benefits of liquid-based Pap smears for the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Where are the CDC guidelines for cytology proficiency testing in the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What are the methods for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing?

What is the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in the management of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US)?

What is the role of self-collected vaginal human papillomavirus (HPV) specimens in the surveillance of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)?

Which human papillomavirus (HPV) tests are under development?

What are the FDA-approved indications for the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test?

What is the role of the acetic acid test in the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How is the acetic acid test used to diagnose human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of tissue biopsy in the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

When is tissue biopsy indicated for the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

When is biopsy of typical-appearing condylomata acuminata indicated?

How is biopsy performed in the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of histopathology in the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of common cutaneous warts in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of condyloma acuminatum in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of Bowenoid papulosis in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for condylomata acuminata due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

When is treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection not recommended?

Which factors influence treatment selection for human papillomavirus (HPV) genital warts?

How are most human papillomavirus (HPV) infections treatment?

What is the initial treatment for human papillomavirus (HPV) caused warts?

How is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection managed in patients who are immunosuppressed?

How frequently do human papillomavirus (HPV) caused condylomata acuminate recur?

How is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection managed during pregnancy?

What is the risk of perinatal human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission?

How does maternal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection affect infant outcomes?

How frequently is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection the cause of cervical cancer?

Which patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are at a higher risk of persistent lesions and malignancy?

Which patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are at increased risk for anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL)?

How are human papillomavirus (HPV) anogenital warts diagnosed in children?

What are the risks of transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) during pregnancy?

When is cesarean delivery considered in mothers with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What risk is increased in immunosuppressed patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What is verrucous carcinoma of genitalia and how is it managed?

How are medicines administered in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

What is the role of pharmacologic therapy in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

What is the role of imiquimod in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the regimen for imiquimod in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of interferons in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What properties of interferon alfa may be beneficial in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

How is interferon alfa used in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What is the efficacy of interferon in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

When is a second course of interferon given in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of podofilox in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of podophyllin in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How is podophyllin administered in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What are potential adverse effects of podophyllin therapy in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the benefits of podofilox compared to podophyllin in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of 5-fluorouracil (FU) in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

How is 5-fluorouracil (FU) administered in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What is the role of keratolytic agents in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the first choice for treatment fir vulvar or vaginal condyloma in pregnant women with human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

What is the duration of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) therapy for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What is the role of sinecatechins ointment in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How is cryosurgery used to treat human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

What are the primary surgical therapies for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are alternative surgical procedures for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What factors determine the selection of surgical procedure for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which treatment is most effective in eradicating genital warts in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of cryotherapy in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

How safe is cryotherapy for treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How is cryosurgery performed in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the freeze-thaw-freeze cryosurgery method for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the prognosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection following cryosurgery?

How is electrosurgery used to treat human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

What is required for electrosurgery to treat human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

What is the effectiveness of electrosurgery for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How is pain managed following electrosurgery for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of simple surgical excision in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How effective is surgical excision for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How is surgical excision performed in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of Mohs in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of carbon dioxide laser vaporization in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

When is carbon dioxide laser vaporization typically used for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the efficacy of carbon dioxide laser vaporization for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How is the power density determined in laser vaporization of condylomatous lesions in human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What is the efficacy of laser vaporization in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the role of the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator (CUSA) in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

What are the possible complications of warts in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

What are the risks of different therapeutic modalities for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Where can information be found on the surgical complications of treating squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs)?

What is the role of folate deficiency in the malignant transformation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which activity modifications are required during treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

What are the options for pain management in human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

What is the role of the 9-valent HPV vaccine (Gardasil 9 [9vHPV]) in the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the indications for the 9-valent HPV vaccine (Gardasil 9 [9vHPV]) for prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

When is administration of the 9-valent HPV vaccine (Gardasil 9 [9vHPV]) most effective?

What is the efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 vaccine in females?

What is the efficacy of quadrivalent vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in females?

What is an expected benefit of routine use of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV)?

What is the efficacy of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) in the prevention of cervical abnormalities?

What is the safety data for the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines?

What are possible adverse effects of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine?

What are possible limitations of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine?

Which organizations have provided guidelines for prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What is the efficacy of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in males?

What are the benefits of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in men who have sex with men?

What is the cost effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination?

What percentage of teenagers have received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine?

What are the sexual risk factors of acquiring human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How should male partners of women with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection be managed?

What are limitations in the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What role does circumcision play in the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

When should a gynecologic oncologist be consulted in the management of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

When should an urologist be consulted in the management of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

When should a colorectal surgeon be consulted in the management of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

When should an otolaryngologist be consulted in the management of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

When should a dermatologist be consulted in the management of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

When should an infectious disease specialist be consulted in the management of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

When should a proctologist be consulted in the management of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

Why is recurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection common?

What monitoring is need following treatment of condylomata acuminata in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How should sexual partners of women with condyloma acuminatum be managed?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of genital neoplasia in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

How is the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) monitored in women with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Guidelines

What are the American Cancer Society (ACS) guidelines on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination?

What are the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for human papillomavirus (HPV) disease?

What is the role of keratolytic agents in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

What are the initial treatments for most patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which vaccines for the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are available in the US?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines, Inactivated, Viral are used in the treatment of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?

Which medications in the drug class Topical Skin Products are used in the treatment of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite are used in the treatment of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?

Which medications in the drug class Keratolytic Agents are used in the treatment of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?

Which medications in the drug class Immunomodulators are used in the treatment of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?