Influenza Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 26, 2018
  • Author: Hien H Nguyen, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is influenza?

What are the signs and symptoms of influenza?

What is the incubation period of influenza?

How is influenza diagnosed?

What is avian influenza (H5N1)?

How is influenza prevented?

What are CDC recommendations for influenza vaccination?

Which drugs have been approved for the treatment of influenza?

What is influenza?

What is the historical incidence of deadly influenza pandemics?

Which conditions have signs and symptoms that overlap with influenza?

How is influenza diagnosed?

How is a clinical diagnosis of influenza confirmed?

How is influenza prevented?

What is the pathophysiology of influenza infection?

How does major typing of influenza A occur?

What are the reservoirs for influenza virus?

What are the mutation rates of influenza A?

What is the role of antigenic drift in the pathogenesis of influenza?

What is the role of antigenic shift in the pathogenesis of influenza?

How are influenza viruses transmitted?

When does viral shedding occur in influenza?

What is the pathophysiology of avian influenza (H5N1) infection?

What is the etiology of influenza?

How is avian influenza (H5N1) transmitted?

What is the global incidence of influenza?

What are the mortality rates associated with influenza?

How did the epidemiology of the 2009-2010 H1N1 ("swine flu") influenza differ from typical influenza seasons?

What is the global incidence of avian influenza (H5N1)?

What is the prognosis of seasonal influenza?

What is the prognosis of avian influenza (H5N1)?

What is the mortality risk of avian influenza (H5N1)?

What increases the risk of severe influenza?

What was the prognosis of influenza during the 2013-2014 influenza season?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of influenza?

How does influenza-related weakness and fatigue affect normal activity levels?

What is the incubation period of influenza?

What were the initial symptoms of the H1N1 influenza pandemic?

Which physical findings suggest influenza?

How is primary influenza pneumonia characterized?

What are the risk factors for influenza-related pneumonia?

What causes secondary bacterial pneumonia in influenza?

What are the possible complications of influenza pneumonia?

How does myositis present in patients with influenza?

Which complications can occur in the clinical course of avian influenza (H5N1)?

DDX

What are the risk factors for avian influenza (H5N1)?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of influenza?

What is the primary presenting illness in avian influenza (H5N1)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Influenza?

Workup

What is the criterion standard for confirming influenza?

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of influenza?

What is the sensitivity and specificity of rapid diagnostic tests for influenza?

Which rapid diagnostic tests for influenza are used in physician's offices?

Which tests are used to confirm influenza?

How are samples obtained for viral culture of influenza viruses?

What is the efficacy of PCR in the diagnosis of influenza?

What is the role of direct immunofluorescent and serologic testing in the diagnosis of influenza?

Which rapid test is used to diagnose avian influenza (H5N1)?

What is the role of coagulation studies in the diagnosis of avian influenza (H5N1)?

What tests may be useful in differentiating avian influenza (H5N1) from other febrile tropical diseases?

What is the role of a metabolic panel in the management of avian influenza (H5N1)?

Which patient characteristics should prompt evaluation for avian H5N1 influenza?

How should patients be evaluated for avian influenza (H5N1)?

What are the CDC recommendations for avian influenza A (H7N9) testing?

What is the role of chest radiography in the evaluation of influenza?

Which chest radiography findings are characteristic of avian influenza (H5N1)?

Treatment

How is seasonal influenza prevented?

Which public health measures have been shown to effectively reduce influenza transmission?

What is the rate of recovery from influenza?

When is inpatient treatment indicated for influenza?

What are the recommendations for administration of vaccines that contain live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV)?

What is the efficacy of vaccination against seasonal influenza virus?

Which seasonal influenza vaccines are used in the US?

What are the CDC/ACIP influenza vaccine recommendations?

What are the components of the 2018-2019 Northern Hemisphere seasonal influenza vaccines?

When is an intranasal flu vaccine indicated?

What are the influenza vaccine options?

How is influenza prevented during pregnancy?

How is influenza prevented in elderly persons?

How is influenza prevented among poultry and swine workers?

How is avian influenza (H5N1) prevented?

What vaccine is FDA approved for prevention of avian influenza (H5N1)?

How is avian influenza (H5N1) prevented among travelers?

What measures should be taken to prepare for an influenza pandemic?

What is included in prehospital care for influenza?

Which antiviral medications are used for chemoprophylaxis and treatment of influenza?

When should antiviral drugs be administered in the treatment of influenza?

How does delayed influenza treatment affect the efficacy of antiviral drugs?

What is the role of neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment of influenza?

What is the efficacy of oseltamivir in the treatment of influenza?

What is the role of baloxavir marboxil (Xofluza) in the treatment of influenza?

What is the efficacy of zanamivir in the treatment of influenza?

What are the CDC recommendations for the use of antiviral drugs in the treatment of influenza?

What is the role of laninamivir octanoate in the treatment of influenza?

When are specialist consultations indicated for the treatment of influenza?

When is long-term monitoring indicated following treatment of influenza?

Guidelines

What are the CDC flu vaccination guidelines for the current (2017-2018) influenza season?

What are the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines on influenza vaccination in children?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for influenza?

Which medications in the drug class Antivirals, Influenza are used in the treatment of Influenza?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines, Inactivated, Viral are used in the treatment of Influenza?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines, Live, Viral are used in the treatment of Influenza?

Which medications in the drug class Uricosuric Agents are used in the treatment of Influenza?