Klebsiella Infections Questions & Answers

Updated: Jun 10, 2019
  • Author: Shahab Qureshi, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are Klebsiellae?

Which antigens do members of the Klebsiella genus typically express?

Which species of Klebsiellae are pathogenic in humans?

What are the host defenses against Klebsiella infections?

Which two agents are needed for defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae (K pneumoniae) infection?

How do Klebsiella bacteria overcome innate host immunity?

What is the role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the pathogenesis of Klebsiella infections?

What is the role of iron in the pathogenesis of Klebsiella infections?

What is the prevalence of Klebsiellae bacteria in humans?

Which Klebsiellae species are most often responsible for human infections?

What is the typical disease course of Klebsiella infections?

What are the risk factors for nosocomial Klebsiella infections?

What causes granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) and what is the incidence in the US?

What are rhinoscleroma and ozena?

Which Klebsiella pathogen may cause neonatal bacteremia?

What has led to multidrug-resistant strains and increased mortality from Klebsiellae pathogens?

What are risk factors for Klebsiella infection?

What is K pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)?

What is the global incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K pneumoniae) infection?

What is prevalence of Klebsiellae in nosocomial infections in the US?

In which settings are patients at highest risk of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) transmission?

What is the prevalence of Klebsiella oxytoca (K oxytoca) in NICUs?

What is the global distribution of Klebsiella infections?

What is the mortality and morbidity of Klebsiella infections?

How does the incidence of Klebsiella infections vary among age groups?

Presentation

What are the common Klebsiella infections in humans?

What are the signs and symptoms of community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae (K pneumoniae)?

What are the signs and symptoms of Klebsiella urinary tract infection (UTI)?

What are the signs and symptoms of nosocomial Klebsiella infection?

What are the signs and symptoms of rhinoscleroma and ozena Klebsiella infections?

What are the signs and symptoms of Klebsiella chronic genital ulcerative disease?

What is the role of catheterization in nosocomial Klebsiella infections?

Which physical findings suggest Klebsiella pneumonia?

What should physical exams include for suspected nosocomial Klebsiella infections?

Which factors increase the risk of Klebsiella colonization and infection?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of community-acquired Klebsiella pneumonia?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of Klebsiella urinary tract infection (UTI)?

Which diagnoses should be included in the differential diagnosis of nosocomial Klebsiella infections?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of rhinoscleroma and ozena?

Workup

Which CBC findings suggest Klebsiella infections?

What is the appearance of Klebsiellae on sputum Gram strain?

What is the role of serology testing in the workup of Klebsiella infections?

Which sites should be cultured in the workup of Klebsiella infections?

What is the role of chest tomography in the workup of Klebsiella infections?

Which chest radiography findings suggest Klebsiella infection?

Which radiographic findings support a Klebsiella etiology in patients with pneumonia?

Which radiographic findings occur with increased frequency in patients with Klebsiella pneumonia?

Which methods are used to screen for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) organisms?

Which organizations have defined criteria for susceptibility testing for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) organisms?

What is the role of DNA microarray technology in the workup of Klebsiella infections?

Which infection-control practices should be performed in suspected Klebsiella infections?

What is the role of thoracocentesis in the workup of Klebsiella infections?

What is the role of bronchoscopy in the workup of Klebsiella infections?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for Klebsiella infections?

Which antibiotic agents are indicated in severely ill patients with Klebsiella infections?

What is the role of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase combination antibiotics in the treatment of Klebsiella infections?

What is the role of meropenem/vaborbactam (Vabomere) in the treatment of Klebsiella infections?

What is the role of aztreonam or quinolones in the treatment of Klebsiella infections?

Which antibiotics are used to treat susceptible isolates of Klebsiella infections?

What is the treatment for severe Klebsiella pneumonia?

Which antibiotics are effective for treatment of resistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) infections?

Which antibiotics are effective for treatment of resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) infections?

Which antibiotics are effective for treatment of resistant metallo-beta-lactamases infections?

Which antibiotics are effective for treatment of resistant for OXA-type carbapenemases infections?

Which antibiotic is effective for treating resistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing isolates?

Which antibiotic is effective for treating isolates that produce carbapenemase in Klebsiella infections?

Which combination therapy may improve survival in patients with Klebsiella-related bacteremia?

What antibiotic tissue penetration should be considered in the treatment of Klebsiella infection?

When is percutaneous drainage indicated in the treatment of Klebsiella infections?

What is the mortality rate of community-acquired Klebsiella pneumonia?

What is the treatment for community-acquired Klebsiella pneumonia?

What is the antibiotic treatment regimen for nosocomial Klebsiella pneumonia?

What is the role of tomography scans in the management of nosocomial Klebsiella pneumonia?

What is the treatment for Klebsiella-related urinary tract infections (UTIs)?

What is the treatment for Klebsiella-related cholangitis?

What is treatment for Klebsiella meningitis?

What are the treatments for Klebsiella endophthalmitis and endocarditis?

What is the treatment for Klebsiella oxytoca (K oxytoca) infection and what is the mortality rate?

How is rhinoscleroma treated?

How is ozena treated?

What is the treatment for Klebsiella granulomatis (K granulomatis) genital and mucocutaneous infections?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of Klebsiella infections?

Medications

Which agents are used for the treatment of Klebsiella infections?

What is the role of cephalosporins in the treatment of Klebsiella infections?

Which mediations are used in the treatment of Klebsiella infections?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Klebsiella Infections?

Follow-up

What is the indication for transfer of patients with Klebsiella infections?

Which infection control measures prevent the spread of Klebsiella infection?

What is a major source of hospital-acquired Klebsiella infections?

When is protective isolation indicated to prevent the spread of Klebsiella infections?

What measures should be taken to prevent nosocomial Klebsiella infections?

What are the possible complications of Klebsiella infections?

What is the prognosis of Klebsiella pneumonia?