Leprosy Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 24, 2018
  • Author: Darvin Scott Smith, MD, MSc, DTM&H; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is leprosy?

What is the global prevalence of leprosy?

What is the global incidence of leprosy?

What steps is the WHO taking to reduce the global rate of new cases of leprosy?

Why is leprosy expected to remain an ongoing public health problem?

What is the pathophysiology of leprosy in hosts with a vigorous immune response?

What is the pathophysiology of leprosy in individuals who have a minimal immune response?

What happens if patients present with both categories of leprosy?

How is leprosy classified?

What is the Ridley-Jopling classification of leprosy?

What is the WHO classification of leprosy?

What is the incidence of leprosy in the US?

What is the prevalence of leprosy globally, according to WHO?

What is the mortality/morbidity rate of leprosy?

What are the characteristic impairments in leprosy?

What are the impairments of advanced leprosy?

What are the racial predilections of leprosy?

How does the incidence of leprosy vary by sex?

Which age groups are at highest risk for leprosy?

Presentation

What are the symptoms of leprosy?

What should be the focus of travel history in the evaluation of leprosy?

How long is the incubation period of leprosy?

What are the cardinal signs of leprosy?

What should be included in the physical exam for leprosy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of tuberculoid leprosy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of lepromatous leprosy?

What are the symptoms of advanced leprosy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of borderline tuberculoid leprosy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of mid borderline leprosy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of borderline lepromatous leprosy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of indeterminate leprosy?

What are the causes of leprosy?

What are the routes of transmission of leprosy?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses for leprosy?

What are the differential diagnoses for Leprosy?

Workup

What is the WHO case definition of leprosy?

What is the role of lab studies in the diagnosis of leprosy?

Which lab tests are performed following drug treatment for leprosy?

What is the role of immunologic tests in the diagnosis of leprosy?

How is leprosy diagnosed?

What is the role of nerve biopsy in the diagnosis of leprosy?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of leprosy?

How is leprosy graded and staged?

Treatment

What is the WHO recommended multidrug regimen for treatment of leprosy?

What are the US Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) recommended treatment regimens for leprosy?

What is the role of corticosteroids and prednisolone in the treatment of leprosy?

What is the prevalence of drug-resistant leprosy?

What is the role of surgery for leprosy?

What are the preoperative requirements for surgical treatment of leprosy?

What is the role of neural surgery in the treatment of leprosy?

What is the goal of surgery for leprosy?

Which surgical procedure is indicated for contractures of the hand resulting from leprosy?

Which surgical procedure is indicated as last resort for extreme cases of leprosy?

What surgical procedure is indicated for loss of eyelid function in leprosy?

Which cosmetic procedures may be considered for leprosy?

Which specialist consultations are needed for the treatment of leprosy?

How is the long-term neurologic sequelae of leprosy prevented?

What is a type 1 reaction in leprosy?

How are type 1 reactions in leprosy managed?

What are type 2 reactions in leprosy?

How are type 2 reactions in leprosy managed?

What is the Lucio phenomenon in leprosy?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of leprosy?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics, Other are used in the treatment of Leprosy?

Follow-up

What is included in outpatient care for leprosy?

Which lab tests are performed during the treatment of leprosy?

What are the benefits of a successful treatment of leprosy?

What should be included in long-term monitoring following treatment of leprosy?

How is leprosy prevented?

What is the prognosis of leprosy following treatment?

What is included in the management of leprosy?

What services are provided by regional ambulatory clinics in for the management of leprosy?

Why should patients be educated about the importance of continuing long-term treatment for leprosy?

What are the recommendations for the household contacts of patients with leprosy?

How does leprosy affect pregnant patients?