Leptospirosis Questions & Answers

Updated: Jun 13, 2018
  • Author: Sandra G Gompf, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What is leptospirosis?

What are the signs and symptoms of leptospirosis?

Which lab studies are performed to screen for and diagnosis leptospirosis?

Which studies are used to determine the severity of organ complications caused by leptospirosis?

What are the treatment options for leptospirosis?

What is leptospirosis?

How is leptospirosis transmitted?

What are the risk factors for Leptospira exposure?

What is the initial presentation of leptospirosis?

How is leptospirosis treated?

What is the historical background on leptospirosis?

What are leptospires and how are they classified?

What is the primary reservoir of leptospiral serovars?

What are the clinical manifestations of leptospirosis in animals?

What is the pathogenesis of leptospirosis?

What are the pathologic effects of leptospirosis?

What is the effect of leptospirosis on the kidneys?

What is the effect of leptospirosis on the liver?

What is the effect of leptospirosis on the lungs?

What is the effect of leptospirosis on the heart?

What is the effect of leptospirosis on the adrenal gland?

What is the effect of leptospirosis on the skin and muscles?

What is the effect of leptospirosis on the vascular system?

What is the pathogenesis of leptospirosis if left untreated?

What causes leptospirosis?

How are Leptospira classified?

What are the clinical manifestations of leptospirosis?

How is leptospirosis transmitted to humans?

What is the incidence of leptospirosis in the US?

Which US state has the highest annual case reports of leptospirosis?

Which animal is a major vector of leptospirosis in the US?

What is the seasonal incidence of leptospirosis in the US?

What are the global incidence rates and environmental associations of leptospirosis?

How does the incidence for leptospirosis vary among different demographic groups?

What is the seasonal variation in incidence for leptospirosis?

What are the mortality rates for leptospirosis?

What is the incidence of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis?

What is the prognosis of leptospirosis during pregnancy?

What are the long-term morbidities of leptospirosis?

What are the risks of leptospirosis during pregnancy?

Who is at a higher risk of contracting leptospirosis?

What information about leptospirosis prevention should patients receive?

Presentation

What is the focus of history in suspected leptospirosis?

What are the clinical syndromes of leptospirosis?

What are the phases of illness for leptospirosis?

What are the signs and symptoms of acute phase leptospirosis?

What is the disease course of leptospirosis?

How do the physical findings vary by severity of leptospirosis?

What are the ocular symptoms of leptospirosis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of leptospirosis?

What are complications of leptospirosis?

What are the cardiac complications of severe leptospirosis?

What complications may occur late in the disease course of leptospirosis?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of leptospirosis?

How can history be used to narrow the differential diagnoses of leptospirosis?

Workup

What is the role of serologic testing in the diagnosis and treatment of leptospirosis?

What is the role of lab testing in the evaluation of leptospirosis?

Which lab tests are used to confirm a diagnosis of leptospirosis?

What are the limitations of lab confirmation of leptospirosis?

What is the role of microscopic agglutination test (MAT) in the diagnosis of leptospirosis?

Following acute phase of leptospirosis, which tests are performed to determine the extent and severity of organ involvement?

What is the role of urinalysis in the diagnosis of leptospirosis?

What is the role of CSF analysis in the diagnosis of leptospirosis?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of leptospirosis?

What is the role of blood culture in the evaluation of leptospirosis?

What is microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) and how is it used in the diagnosis of leptospirosis?

Which factors affect microscopic agglutination test (MAT) accuracy in diagnosing leptospirosis?

Which tests are used to screen for leptospirosis?

What is the role of immunoglobulin M (IgM) ELISA in the evaluation of leptospirosis?

What is the role of PCR in the diagnosis of leptospirosis?

Which is the role of dark-field exam of blood or urine in the diagnosis of leptospirosis?

What is the role of chest radiography in the evaluation of leptospirosis?

Which histological findings are characteristic of leptospirosis?

What are the histological findings of infective systemic vasculitis that indicate leptospirosis?

Where in the body are leptospires identified after the initial infection?

Treatment

What is the role of antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of leptospirosis?

When should antibiotics be administered for the treatment of leptospirosis?

Which antibiotics are used for the treatment of mild leptospirosis?

What is the focus of treatment of severe leptospirosis?

What is the approach to disease management for leptospirosis?

What is the role of corticosteroid therapy for leptospirosis?

How are the complications of leptospirosis managed?

What diet modifications are needed during the treatment of leptospirosis?

What activity modifications are needed during the treatment of leptospirosis?

When is transfer of patients with leptospirosis indicated?

Which specialist consultations are necessary in the management of leptospirosis?

Where can assistance with lab diagnosis of leptospirosis be obtained?

How is leptospirosis prevented?

Which public health measures are employed in the prevention of leptospirosis?

What is the role of vaccines in the prevention of leptospirosis in humans and animals?

What is the role of doxycycline in the treatment of leptospirosis?

Medications

What are the medical treatments for leptospirosis?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Leptospirosis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Leptospirosis?