Spasticity Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 01, 2018
  • Author: Krupa Pandey, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen A Berman, MD, PhD, MBA  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

How is spasticity characterized?

What are the patterns of spasticity in upper extremities?

What is the most common sign of spasticity?

What are the patterns of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy?

What are the patterns of spasticity in the lower extremities?

How is spasticity diagnosed?

What are the clinical scales for spasticity?

How is spasticity treated?

What is spasticity?

What are the signs and symptoms of spasticity?

What types of interventions are used in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the prevalence of spasticity?

What is the pathophysiology of spasticity?

What is the role of cortical and spinal cord damage in the pathogenesis of spasticity?

What are the pathophysiologic mechanisms of spasticity?

What causes the sudden onset of spasticity?

Which factors exacerbate preexisting spasticity?

What is the prognosis of spasticity?

What is the prevalence of spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS)?

What is the prognosis of spasticity following stroke?

How does spasticity affect health and quality of life (QoL)?

What are the possible benefits of spasticity?

Which organizations offer resources and advocacy groups for patients with spasticity?

Presentation

What are the initial steps in the assessment of spasticity?

What are the manifestations of spasticity in cerebral palsy?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis (MS)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of spasticity in the upper extremities?

Which muscles contribute to spasticity of the shoulder?

Which muscles contribute to spasticity of the hand?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of spasticity of the lower extremities?

Which muscles contribute to flexor patterns of spasticity in the lower extremities?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of spasticity following traumatic brain injury (TBI)?

Which muscles contribute to extensor patterns of spasticity in the lower extremities?

What is included in the physical exam to evaluate spasticity?

When is a physical and occupational therapy evaluation of spasticity indicated?

How is a physical and occupational therapy evaluation of spasticity administered?

DDX

How is spasticity differentiated from seizure activity?

Which neurologic disorders are associated with spasticity?

Workup

Which studies are performed in the workup of spasticity?

What are the research-oriented tools used to measure spasticity?

Treatment

What should be considered prior to spasticity treatment selection?

What types of therapy are used in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of chronic spasticity?

Which factors have an effect on spasticity treatment selection?

What is the role of dantrolene sodium in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of phenol in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of oral medications in the treatment of spasticity?

Which oral medications are used in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of benzodiazepines in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of baclofen in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of tizanidine in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of clonidine in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of gabapentin in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of lamotrigine in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of cyproheptadine in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of cannabis-based medicine (CBM) in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of neurolysis in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of botulinum toxin in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of botulinum toxin and phenol combination therapy in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of BoNT-A in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the efficacy of BoNT-A in the treatment of spasticity?

What are the goals for BoNT-A treatment of spasticity?

How is BoNT-A dosed for the treatment of spasticity?

What are BoNT-A injection strategies for the treatment of spasticity?

Which complementary therapies are used in combination with BoNT-A for the treatment of spasticity?

What causes resistance to BoNT-A in the treatment of spasticity?

How is resistance to BoNT-A assessed in the treatment of spasticity?

What are spasticity treatment alternatives for patients with BoNT-A resistance?

What is the efficacy of BoNT-B in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the goal of ITB therapy for spasticity?

What is the role of pump technology in ITB treatment of spasticity?

How is ITB dosed for the treatment of spasticity?

What is the dosing of ITB maintenance therapy for spasticity?

What are the possible adverse effects of ITB spasticity treatment?

What is the role of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role neurosurgery in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of orthopedic surgery in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of contracture release in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of tendon transfer in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of osteotomy in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of electrical stimulation in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of physical and occupational therapy in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of stretching exercises in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of strengthening exercises in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of orthoses in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of cold packs in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of biofeedback in the treatment of spasticity?

What is the role of outcome measures in spasticity treatment?

What are the most commonly used spasticity rating scales?

How is spasticity prevented?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with spasticity?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of spasticity?

Medications

Which types of medications are used in the treatment of spasticity?

Which medications in the drug class Botulinum Toxins are used in the treatment of Spasticity?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha2-adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Spasticity?

Which medications in the drug class Benzodiazepines are used in the treatment of Spasticity?

Which medications in the drug class Skeletal Muscle Relaxants are used in the treatment of Spasticity?