Malaria Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 26, 2019
  • Author: Thomas E Herchline, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is malaria?

What are the signs and symptoms of malaria?

Which physical findings suggest malaria?

What should be the focus of patient history in suspected malaria?

Which blood studies should be performed in the workup of malaria?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of malaria?

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of malaria?

How are Plasmodium species histologically distinguished?

What is the basis for treatment selection in patients with malaria?

What are the general recommendations for pharmacologic treatment of malaria?

Which medications are used for the treatment of malaria in pregnancy?

Where is malaria most prevalent and how is malaria infection transmitted?

Which Plasmodium species cause malaria?

How are Plasmodium species that cause malaria differentiated?

How common is malaria infection caused by multiple Plasmodium species?

Who is at increased risk for malaria infection?

What is the pathogenesis of malaria?

What complications are associated with Plasmodium falciparum (P falciparum) malarial infection?

What information about malaria should be given to individuals traveling to endemic regions?

How is malaria infection transmitted?

What are possible outcomes of Plasmodium falciparum (P falciparum) malaria infection?

Which factors influence malaria immunity?

How long do Plasmodium species incubate in humans?

What is the life cycle of Plasmodia?

What are the possible sequelae from replication of Plasmodia inside red blood cells (RBCs)?

What is the role of hemozoin in the etiology of malaria?

What is the role of Plasmodia metabolism in the pathophysiology of malaria?

What is the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum (P falciparum) malaria?

What is the pathophysiology of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax (P vivax)?

What is the pathophysiology of malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale (P ovale)?

What is the disease course of malaria caused by Plasmodium malariae (P malariae)?

What is the disease course of malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi (P knowlesi)?

What is the incidence of malaria in the US?

What is the mortality rate for malaria?

What is the global incidence of malaria?

Which malaria comorbidity is associated with a worse prognosis?

How does the incidence of malaria vary between men and women?

Which age group is at an increased mortality risk from malaria?

What is the prognosis of malaria?

What are the possible complications of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum (P falciparum)?

What is the mortality rate of malaria?

What are the host protective factors against malaria?

Presentation

What should be the focus of the patient history for suspected malaria?

What is the incubation period for malaria infection and what symptoms occur?

How is the onset of malaria symptoms characterized?

What are less common symptoms of malaria?

What is the presentation of Plasmodium vivax (P vivax) malaria infection?

What is the presentation of Plasmodium malariae (P malariae) malaria infection?

What findings suggest Plasmodium knowlesi (P knowlesi) malaria?

What are the symptoms of malarial infection?

What is the presentation of severe malaria?

What are the symptoms of malaria in children?

What is cerebral malaria?

What causes anemia in patients with malaria?

What is the treatment of renal failure in patients with severe malaria?

What are the respiratory symptoms of malaria?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of malaria?

What are the differential diagnoses for Malaria?

Workup

In travelers returning from endemic areas, which findings suggest malaria?

What should be considered in patients who do not respond to antimalarial therapy?

What lab tests are performed in the workup of malaria?

What test must be performed before treating a malaria patient with primaquine?

What is the role of blood glucose testing in the diagnosis and management of malaria?

What are the BCSH recommendations for the lab diagnosis of malaria?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of malaria?

What is the role of microhematocrit centrifugation in the workup of malaria?

What is the indication for fluorescent and ultraviolet testing in the workup of malaria?

What is the role of PCR assay testing in the workup of malaria?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the workup of malaria?

What is the role of blood smears in the workup of malaria?

How are blood smears examined for malaria?

What is the difference between thick and thin blood smears in the workup of malaria?

When should alternative diagnostic methods to blood smears be used in the workup of malaria?

How effective are rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in the workup of malaria?

What is the role of PCR assay testing and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) in the diagnosis of malaria?

What is the role of the quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique in the diagnosis of malaria?

How should a diagnosis of malaria be reported?

What are the histologic findings for the Plasmodium species associated with malaria?

Treatment

What monitoring is needed of patients treated for malaria?

What may increase the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with malaria?

What are approach considerations for mixed infections of malaria?

Which Plasmodium species have known resistance to antimalarial agents?

When is inpatient treatment indicated in the treatment of malaria?

What are the increased risks for pregnant women who contract malaria?

How is malaria treated during pregnancy?

What is the disease course of malaria in children?

How is malaria treated in children?

How should diet and activity be modified in patients with malaria?

What are the treatment options for severe complicated malaria?

What is the efficacy of artesunate for the treatment of malaria?

How common is drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum (P falciparum) malaria?

What is the role of artemisinin for the treatment of malaria?

Which medications are used to treat acute uncomplicated malaria?

Is there a vaccine for malaria?

What are the general recommendations for the treatment of malaria?

What is the role of mefloquine hydrochloride for the treatment of malaria?

What is the role of tafenoquine (Krintafel) in preventing malaria relapse?

Which medications are used to treat malaria during pregnancy?

When is inpatient care indicated for the treatment of malaria?

How often should blood smears be obtained during the treatment of malaria?

How is malaria prevented?

How much DEET should be used to repel mosquitoes and prevent malaria?

What is the role of chemoprophylaxis in the prevention of malaria?

What progress is being made on the development of a malaria vaccine?

When are specialist consultations needed for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria?

What consultations are needed for the treatment of pregnant patients with malaria?

Medications

Which major drug classes are used to treat malaria?

What is the prevalence of counterfeit antimalarial drugs?

What is the role of antipyretics in the treatment of malaria?

What are the possible adverse effects of antimalarial drugs for the treatment of malaria?

What are the possible complications of high-dose quinine for the treatment of malaria?

Which medications in the drug class Antimalarials are used in the treatment of Malaria?