Dysphagia Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Jan 31, 2022
  • Author: Nam-Jong Paik, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Elizabeth A Moberg-Wolff, MD  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

See the list below:

  • Cerebrovascular accident

  • Brainstem tumors

  • Degenerative diseases, such as ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Huntington disease

  • Peripheral neuropathy

  • Muscular dystrophy (myotonic dystrophy, oculopharyngeal dystrophy)

  • Cricopharyngeal achalasia

  • Obstructive lesions, such as tumors, inflammatory masses, Zenker diverticulum, esophageal webs, extrinsic structural lesions, anterior mediastinal masses, and cervical spondylosis

  • Spastic motor disorders, such as diffuse esophageal spasm, hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, and nutcracker esophagus

  • Scleroderma

  • Obstructive lesions (eg, tumors, strictures, lower esophageal rings [Schatzki rings], esophageal webs, foreign bodies, vascular compression, mediastinal masses)

Differential Diagnoses