Dysphagia Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 22, 2018
  • Author: Nam-Jong Paik, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Elizabeth A Moberg-Wolff, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is dysphagia?

What are the signs and symptoms of oral or pharyngeal dysphagia?

What are the signs and symptoms of esophageal dysphagia?

What the general symptoms of dysphagia?

Which diagnostic tests are performed in the workup of dysphagia?

What medications are used in the treatment of dysphagia?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of dysphagia?

Which activity modifications are beneficial to patients with dysphagia?

Which facilitation techniques are used in the treatment of dysphagia?

Which compensatory techniques are used to reduce aspiration in dysphagia?

Which enteral feeding techniques are used in the treatment of dysphagia?

How is chronic aspiration treated in patients with dysphagia?

What is dysphagia?

Which conditions are associated with dysphagia in pediatric patients?

What causes dysphagia in geriatric patients?

Which factors can trigger dysphagia?

What is the anatomy of swallowing relevant to dysphagia?

What are processes in oral phase of swallowing relevant to dysphagia?

What are processes in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing relevant to dysphagia?

What are processes in the esophageal phase of swallowing, relevant to dysphagia?

What is the pathophysiology of dysphagia?

What is the pathophysiology of dysphagia in oral-phase disorders?

What is the pathophysiology of dysphagia in pharyngeal-phase disorders?

What is the pathophysiology of dysphagia in esophageal-phase disorders?

What is the pathophysiology of aspiration in dysphagia?

Which CNS conditions cause dysphagia?

What is the role of brain lesions in the etiology of dysphagia?

Which muscular disorders cause dysphagia?

Which neuropathies cause dysphagia?

Which endocrine disorders are associated with dysphagia?

What are the pharmacologic causes of dysphagia?

Which medications cause mucosal injury in dysphagia?

Which medications cause xerostomia in dysphagia?

What are the surgical causes of dysphagia?

What is the role of tracheostomy in the etiology of dysphagia?

How does endotracheal intubation cause dysphagia?

What iatrogenic causes of dysphagia?

How is psychogenic dysphagia diagnosed?

Which motility disorders cause dysphagia?

Which esophageal disorders cause dysphagia?

Which structural disorders cause dysphagia?

What is the prevalence of dysphagia in the US?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of dysphagia?

What is the prognosis of dysphagia?

What is the prognosis of dysphagia-related malnutrition?

What is the prognosis of dysphagia-related dehydration?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of dysphagia?

What are the signs and symptoms of oral or pharyngeal dysphagia?

What are the signs and symptoms of esophageal dysphagia?

What are the general symptoms of dysphagia?

What are the common morbidities in patients with dysphagia?

What is included in the physical exam for dysphagia?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of dysphagia?

What are the differential diagnoses for Dysphagia?

Workup

How is dysphagia diagnosed?

What is the role of chest radiography in the workup of dysphagia?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of dysphagia?

What is the role of CT scanning and MRI in the workup of dysphagia?

What is the role of videofluoroscopy in the workup of dysphagia?

What is the role of scintigraphy in the workup of dysphagia?

What is the role of fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing (FEES) in the workup of dysphagia?

What is the role of endoscopy in the workup of dysphagia?

How is the reflex cough test performed in the workup of dysphagia?

What is the role of electromyography (EMG) in the workup of dysphagia?

What is the role of swallowing electromyography in the workup of dysphagia?

What is the role of laryngeal electromyography in the workup of dysphagia?

What is the role of manometry in the workup of dysphagia?

Treatment

How is dysphagia treated?

Which medications are used in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of dietary modification in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is food viscosity and how is it used in the treatment of dysphagia?

How are dysphagia diets classified?

What are the diets used for the treatment of dysphagia?

How is malnutrition managed in patients with dysphagia?

How is dehydration managed in patients with dysphagia?

What is the role of oral hygiene and dental care in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of exercise in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of biofeedback in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of lip exercises in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of head-lift exercises in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of jaw exercises in the treatment of dysphagia?

Which facilitation techniques are used in the treatment of dysphagia?

How is aspiration prevented in dysphagia?

What is the role of the chin-tuck position in the treatment of dysphagia?

How are head movements used in the treatment of dysphagia?

Which body position may be helpful in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of supraglottic swallow in the treatment of dysphagia?

How is an extended supraglottic swallow performed in the treatment of dysphagia?

What are bolus-clearing maneuvers for treatment of dysphagia?

What is the Mendelsohn maneuver for treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of enteral feeding in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of nasogastric tube feeding in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of oroesophageal tube feeding in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of cricopharyngeal myotomy (CPM) in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of the Shaker exercise in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of the Heimlich maneuver in the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of biofeedback in the treatment of dysphagia?

What types of adaptive equipment are used for the treatment of dysphagia?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of dysphagia?

How is tracheostomy-associated dysphagia treated?

What is the Swallowing Rating Scale for dysphagia?

Medications

What are goals of drug treatment for dysphagia?

Which medications in the drug class Proton Pump Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Dysphagia?

Which medications in the drug class Histamine H2 Antagonists are used in the treatment of Dysphagia?