Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) (Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare [MAI]) Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 17, 2019
  • Author: Janak Koirala, MD, MPH, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

Which species cause mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI])?

What is mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI])?

How frequently does mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) lung disease occur in immunocompetent patients?

What are common environmental sources of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI])?

What tests are performed in the workup of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI])?

What are the treatment options for mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI])?

How is mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) transmitted?

Which patients are at risk of developing a disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What is the most important risk factor for mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection in HIV negative patients?

What is the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–alpha and interferon (IFN)–gamma in the pathogenesis of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI])?

What is the role of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection in the pathogenesis of Lady Windermere syndrome?

What is the role of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (hot-tub lung)?

What is the role of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection in the pathogenesis of cutaneous diseases?

What causes mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infections?

What are the risk factors for pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What is the prevalence of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection among immunocompromised individuals?

What is the role of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production in the etiology of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

How are M avium and M intracellulare differentiated in mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What are possible risk factors for mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What is the prevalence of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infections in the US?

What is the global prevalence of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infections?

How does the prevalence of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection vary by age?

What is the life expectancy for HIV-positive patients with mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infections?

What are the most common complications of disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infections?

What is the clinical course of pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What is the prognosis of more extensive mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) disease?

What is the clinical course of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) lymphadenitis in children?

What are negative prognostic factors for mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What instructions should be provided to patients with mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

Presentation

What are the possible presentations of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What are less common symptoms of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What should be the focus of history in suspected mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What are the physical findings characteristic of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

DDX

When should cutaneous mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection be considered?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What are the differential diagnoses for Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) (Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare [MAI])?

Workup

What testing is included in the workup of suspected mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What are the ATS/IDSA diagnostic guidelines for nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease?

What are ATS/IDSA diagnostic guidelines for hot-tub lung (hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like lung disease)?

What is the role of acid-fast bacillus stains in the diagnosis of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What is the role for blood cultures in the diagnosis of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What is the role of imaging in the diagnosis of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What is the role of biopsy in the diagnosis of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What are the histologic findings characteristic of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

Treatment

What medications are used in the treatment of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What are treatment options for mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

How are pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infections treated in immunocompetent patients?

What is the most effective treatment regimen for pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What is the efficacy of fluoroquinolones in the treatment of pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

Which combination therapies are used in the treatment of disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection in patients with AIDS?

What are the treatment guidelines for mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection in patients with AIDS?

How should disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection in patients with AIDS be treated if unresponsive to initial therapy?

When do guidelines recommend withholding antiretroviral therapy during the treatment of disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection in patients with AIDS?

What is the role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the treatment of disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection in patients with AIDS?

What is the role of chemoprophylaxis in the treatment of disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection in patients with AIDS?

What are the treatment options for mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) lymphadenitis?

What is the role of antimycobacterials and corticosteroids in the treatment of hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like lung disease (hot-tub lung) due to mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

Which specialist consultations are needed for the treatment of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What is included in long-term monitoring of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

Guidelines

What are the British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for the workup of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What are the British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for drug susceptibility testing in the evaluation of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What are the British Thoracic Society (BTS) treatment guidelines for mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

Medications

Which medications are used for the treatment of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What medication should be avoided in patients with disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What is the duration of treatment for mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

What should be considered when selecting medications for the treatment of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (mycobacterium avium-intracellulare [MAI]) infection?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) (Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare [MAI])?