Mycobacterium Xenopi Follow-up

Updated: Jul 07, 2017
  • Author: Mansoor Arif, MD; Chief Editor: Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA  more...
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Follow-up

Further Outpatient Care

Monitor the patient monthly for possible adverse effects.

Monitoring includes (but is not limited to) the following:

  • Liver palpation and, if any discomfort, liver function testing
  • Tests for visual acuity and color vision if ethambutol is used
  • Audiometric testing if aminoglycosides are used
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Further Inpatient Care

Inpatient care is not necessary unless the patient is severely immunocompromised, has disseminated disease, or requires hospitalization for severity of the illness.

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Inpatient & Outpatient Medications

Use at least 2 medications to avoid acquired resistance.

Intravenous administration may be required with disseminated disease.

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Transfer

Consider referring difficult cases to a specialist center.

Consider sending cultures to a reference laboratory to test for susceptibility; however, routine susceptibility testing in a patient who has never been treated is not necessary.

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Deterrence/Prevention

To date, no strategy, method, treatment, or therapy prevents M xenopi infection.

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Complications

See the list below:

  • Chronic wasting syndrome
  • Respiratory failure
  • Chronic respiratory illness
  • Disseminated disease
  • Death
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Prognosis

Outcome is favorable. Many people are colonized but asymptomatic.

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Patient Education

See the list below:

  • Adverse effects of medications
  • Patient compliance with medical therapy (risk of acquired resistance if compliance is < 80%)
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