Mycobacterium Xenopi Treatment & Management

Updated: Oct 14, 2019
  • Author: Mansoor Arif, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Treatment

Medical Care

A physician detecting a positive M xenopi culture result must differentiate among colonization, contamination, and true disease.

Assess bacteriologic data (eg, repeated isolation, organism identification), clinical symptoms, and radiographic findings within the entire clinical context.

Treat with chemotherapy, although optimal therapy is not well established.

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Surgical Care

Surgery may be curative for patients who present with solitary pulmonary nodules and for those with localized pulmonary disease who fail to respond to, or who relapse after, chemotherapy.

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Consultations

See the list below:

  • Infectious disease specialist

  • Thoracic surgery specialist

  • Pulmonary medicine specialist

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Diet

Patients do not require special diets.

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Activity

Patients do not require activity restrictions.

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Prevention

To date, no strategy, method, treatment, or therapy prevents M xenopi infection.

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Long-Term Monitoring

Monitor the patient monthly for possible adverse effects.

Monitoring includes (but is not limited to) the following:

  • Liver palpation and, if any discomfort, liver function testing

  • Tests for visual acuity and color vision if ethambutol is used

  • Audiometric testing if aminoglycosides are used

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Further Inpatient Care

Inpatient care is not necessary unless the patient is severely immunocompromised, has disseminated disease, or requires hospitalization for severity of the illness.

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Inpatient & Outpatient Medications

Use at least 2 medications to avoid acquired resistance.

Intravenous administration may be required with disseminated disease.

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Transfer

Consider referring difficult cases to a specialist center.

Consider sending cultures to a reference laboratory to test for susceptibility; however, routine susceptibility testing in a patient who has never been treated is not necessary.

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