Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIV) and Other Parainfluenza Viruses Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 19, 2019
  • Author: Subhash Chandra Parija, MD, MBBS, PhD, DSc, FRCPath; Chief Editor: Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are parainfluenza viruses (PIVs)?

What is the pathophysiology of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

What is the role of viral replication in the pathophysiology of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

Which factors affect the immune response to human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

What are the mechanisms of airway inflammation in the pathophysiology of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

What is the immune response to human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

What are the viral characteristics of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs)?

How are human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) categorized?

Which clinical conditions are caused by human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs)?

How are human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) transmitted?

Which factors increase the risk for human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

What is the prevalence of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection in the US?

What is the global prevalence of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

What is the prognosis of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

Presentation

What are the common clinical presentations of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

What are the signs and symptoms of croup due to human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

What are the signs and symptoms of bronchiolitis or pneumonia due to human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

Which physical findings are characteristic of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

Which physical findings are characteristic of croup due to human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

Which physical findings are characteristic of bronchiolitis due to human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

Which physical findings are characteristic of pneumonias due to human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

Which physical findings are characteristic of tracheobronchitis due to human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

Which infections are associated with human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infections in immunocompromised patients?

What are the possible complications of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV)?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

What are the differential diagnoses for Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIV) and Other Parainfluenza Viruses?

Workup

How is human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection diagnosed?

How are specimens of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) collected?

What is the role of electron microscopy in the diagnosis of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV)?

What is the role of indirect immunofluorescence in the diagnosis of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV)?

What is the role of ELISA in the diagnosis of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV)?

How is human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) isolated?

How is human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) detected and typed?

What is the serologic diagnosis of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV)?

What is the role of genomic detection in the diagnosis of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV)?

What is the role of neck and chest radiography in the workup of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

Treatment

How is human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection treated?

What is the initial treatment for human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

When is inpatient care indicated for the treatment of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

What is included in supportive care of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

How is mild croup due to human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection treated?

How is moderate croup due to human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection treated?

How is severe croup due to human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection treated?

What is the role of antiviral therapy in the treatment of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

How is human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection prevented?

What is included in the long-term care of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection?

Which medications in the drug class Antiviral, Other are used in the treatment of Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIV) and Other Parainfluenza Viruses?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha/Beta Agonists are used in the treatment of Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIV) and Other Parainfluenza Viruses?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIV) and Other Parainfluenza Viruses?