Pneumococcal Infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae) Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 27, 2018
  • Author: Claudia Antonieta Nieves Prado, MD; Chief Editor: John L Brusch, MD, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are pneumococcal infections?

Which clinical features suggest pneumococcal infection?

Which conditions result from direct extension of pneumococcal infection?

Which conditions result from vascular invasion and hematogenous spread of pneumococcal infection?

How is pneumococcal infection diagnosed?

Which nonspecific lab tests may support the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection?

Which imaging studies may be helpful in the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection?

Which tests are performed to determine the extent of pneumococcal infection?

How are specific pneumococcal infections treated?

How are pneumococcal infections prevented?

What are pneumococcal infections?

What is the role of the bacterial capsule in the pathophysiology of pneumococcal infection?

What is the role of adherence and invasion in the pathophysiology of pneumococcal infection?

How does S pneumoniae colonization affect the incidence of pneumococcal infection in the US?

What is the prevalence of noninvasive pneumococcal infection in the US?

What is the prevalence of invasive pneumococcal infection in the US?

What is the global prevalence of pneumococcal infection?

What is the prevalence of pneumococcal infection in children?

What is the prevalence of pneumococcal infection in adults?

What are the mortality rates for pneumococcal infections?

What are the racial predilections of pneumococcal infection?

What are sexual predilections of pneumococcal infection?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of pneumococcal infection?

What is the prognosis of pneumococcal infection?

What should be included in patient information about pneumococcal infection?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pneumococcal infection?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pneumococcal conjunctivitis?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pneumococcal otitis media?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pneumococcal sinusitis?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pneumococcal infection- related acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pneumococcal pneumonia?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pneumococcal meningitis?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pneumococcal bacteremia?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pneumococcal infection in the joints or bones?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of soft tissue pneumococcal infection?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pneumococcal peritonitis?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pneumococcal cardiac infection?

What causes pneumococcal infection?

Which exposures increase the risk for pneumococcal infection?

What is the role of splenic abnormalities in the etiology of pneumococcal infection?

Which inflammatory conditions increase the risk for pneumococcal infection?

Which defective antibody formations increase the risk for pneumococcal infection?

Which polymorphonuclear leukocytes abnormalities increase the risk for pneumococcal infection?

What are the risk factors for pneumococcal infection?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Pneumococcal Infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae)?

Workup

What is the role of Gram stain and culture in the workup of pneumococcal infection?

In addition to cultures, which lab tests are performed in the workup of pneumococcal infection?

What is the role of lab tests in the diagnosis of pneumococcal conjunctivitis, otitis media, and sinusitis?

What is included in the workup of pneumococcal pneumonia?

How are invasive pneumococcal infections diagnosed?

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis?

How is pneumococcal bacteremia diagnosed?

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal infections?

What is the role of culture and susceptibility testing in the workup of pneumococcal infections?

What are the CLSI definitions of S pneumoniae susceptibility?

What is the role of chest radiography in the workup of pneumococcal infection?

What are the roles of ultrasonography, CT scanning, and MRI in the workup of pneumococcal infection?

What is the role of echocardiography in the workup of pneumococcal infection?

Which clinical procedures may be performed in the workup of pneumococcal infection?

Treatment

How are pneumococcal-related conjunctivitis, otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis, and tracheobronchitis treated?

How is pneumococcal pneumonia treated?

How is pneumococcal meningitis treated?

How are pneumococcal bacteremia and sepsis treated?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of pneumococcal infection?

How is the risk for pneumococcal infection reduced?

How are pneumococcal infections prevented?

When is revaccination against pneumococcal infections indicated?

What are the ACIP and AAP recommendations for immunization of children against pneumococcal infection?

How is pneumococcal infection prevented in high-risk patients?

What is included in inpatient care for pneumococcal pneumonia?

How are hospitalized patients with pneumococcal bacteremia monitored?

How are hospitalized patients with pneumococcal meningitis monitored during treatment?

What is included in inpatient care for invasive pneumococcal infections?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of pneumococcal infection?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines are used in the treatment of Pneumococcal Infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae)?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Pneumococcal Infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae)?