Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 30, 2018
  • Author: Burke A Cunha, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

In which regions is Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) more common?

How is Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) described?

What are the principal vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

Why was the wood tick initially believed to be the vector for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

How was the etiologic agent for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) discovered?

What is the appearance of Rickettsia (R) rickettsii in Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

Which antibiotics were first shown to be effective in the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the mortality rates for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

Where can patient education information be found on Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What type of bacteria is Rickettsia (R) rickettsii?

How do ticks transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

How does Rickettsia (R) rickettsii cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is the pathophysiological effect of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the consequences of vascular diseases in Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is the prevalence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in the US?

Which US regions have the highest incidences of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What time of year do infections of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) commonly occur in the US?

What is the annual incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in US childrenUS?

What are the reasons for the increase of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) incidences in the US?

Where has Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) occurred outside the US?

What is the global incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the racial predilections for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

How does the incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) vary by sex?

In which age groups is the incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) highest?

Which factors affect the mortality rate in Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is the mortality rate for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in untreated cases?

What are the possible complications of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

Which factors at presentation of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) increase the risk for acute renal failure (ARF)?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

When should Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) be considered in patients with unexplained febrile illness?

What is the classic clinical presentation of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the most common symptoms in Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is the possible range of presentations for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

How do adults typically present with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are skin findings characteristic of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are characteristics of the maculopapular rash in Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are characteristics of rash in early stages of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

How frequently does Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) present without rash?

What is characteristic of the rash in older patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are cutaneous symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in addition to rash?

What are some facial manifestations of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the cardiovascular findings that suggest Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the pulmonary findings that suggest Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the GI findings that suggest Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the musculoskeletal findings that suggest Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the central nervous system (CNS) findings that suggest Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the ocular findings that suggest Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What retinal vascular dysfunction is caused by Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What causes optic disc edema in Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the effects of disseminated R rickettsii infection of endothelial cells in Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

DDX

How is early stage of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) characterized?

How is human ehrlichiosis differentiated from Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

When does the rash of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) resemble a drug eruption?

What are conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)?

Workup

How is Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) diagnosed?

When is antibiotic therapy initiated for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

Which lab findings suggest Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

Which lab findings suggest advanced Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

How is the diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) confirmed?

What is the role of blood culture in the diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is the role of chest radiographs in the evaluation of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is the role of electrocardiography in the evaluation of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is the role of direct immunofluorescent microscopy in the diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays in the diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

Treatment

What are the benefits of early administration of antibiotics in the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

How are fluids managed in the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

How is Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) treated during pregnancy?

What specialized training may be needed for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is included in the outpatient care of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

Which specialists should be consulted in the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is the included in prehospital and emergency department (ED) care of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

When is inpatient care indicated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is included in ophthalmic care for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

How is Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) prevented?

What prophylaxis should be given to prevent Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) following removal of a tick?

Medications

What is the drug of choice for treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What are the treatment options for children with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

What is the role of beta-lactam antibiotic coverage in the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents are used in the treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)?

Which medications in the drug class Topical Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)?

Which medications in the drug class Anticholinergic agents, Ophthamic are used in the treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)?